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Academy advanced study aesthetic function Age of Spain Al-Ma'mun Alexandria ancient world antiquity Arabic Aristotelian Aristotle artistic Athens Baghdad Bowen braries building Byzantine Byzantium caliphs Carolingian Renaissance church civilization classical collections Constantinople cultural institutions cultural resources custodial function decline Empire Escorial Fatimids founded Function of Libraries Golden Age grammar Greco-Roman Greece Greece and Rome Greek Harvest of Hellenism Hellenistic heritage higher education History of Western House of Wisdom humanistic research individual intellectual Islam Italy Jewish Johanan ben Zakkai knowledge Latin learning libraries and schools literary literature Lyceum manuscripts mathematical medicine Middle Ages monasteries monastic Moslem Museum Nestorian objets d'art palace Paris Pergamum philosophy Plateresque preservation Ptolemies religious rhetoric role Roman libraries Rome scholars scientific scientists scriptoria secular sixteenth century social society Spain Spanish Spanish Golden Age theology third century Timbuktoo tion tradition translated twelfth century universities West Western Education Western Europe