Crystal Structure Determination

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 1, 2004 - Science - 210 pages
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To solve a crystal structure means to determine the precise spatial arrangements of all of the atoms in a chemical compound in the crystalline state. This knowledge gives a chemist access to a large range of information, including connectivity, conformation, and accurate bond lengths and angles. In addition, it implies the stoichiometry, the density, the symmetry and the three dimensional packing of the atoms in the solid. Since interatomic distances are in the region of100-300 pm or 1-3 A, 1 microscopy using visible light (wavelength ca. 300-700 nm) is not applicable (Fig. l. l). In 1912, Max von Laue showed that crystals are based on a three dimensionallattice which scatters radiation with a wavelength in the vicinity of interatomic distances, i. e. X -rays with = 50-300 pm. The process bywhich this radiation, without changing its wave length, is converted through interference by the lattice to a vast number of observable "reflections" with characteristic directions in space is called X-ray diffraction. The method by which the directions and the intensities of these reflections are measured, and the ordering of the atoms in the crystal deduced from them, is called X-ray struc ture analysis. The following chapter deals with the lattice properties of crystals, the starting point for the explanation of these interference phenomena. Interatomic distances Crystals . . . . . . . . . .
  

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Contents

I
1
II
3
III
4
IV
5
V
6
VI
7
VII
8
VIII
9
XLVIII
101
XLIX
102
L
103
LI
105
LII
106
LIII
111
LIV
115
LV
116

IX
13
X
16
XI
18
XII
20
XIII
22
XIV
23
XV
27
XVI
30
XVII
33
XVIII
35
XIX
37
XX
41
XXI
42
XXII
44
XXIII
46
XXIV
52
XXV
55
XXVI
56
XXVII
57
XXVIII
58
XXIX
59
XXX
61
XXXI
62
XXXII
65
XXXIII
67
XXXIV
71
XXXV
74
XXXVI
78
XXXVII
81
XXXVIII
86
XXXIX
87
XL
89
XLI
91
XLII
92
XLIII
93
XLIV
95
XLV
97
XLVI
99
XLVII
100
LVI
118
LVII
119
LVIII
120
LIX
121
LX
122
LXII
123
LXIII
124
LXIV
127
LXV
128
LXVI
130
LXVII
131
LXVIII
132
LXIX
137
LXX
139
LXXI
141
LXXII
142
LXXIII
143
LXXIV
145
LXXV
146
LXXVI
147
LXXVII
148
LXXVIII
149
LXXIX
155
LXXX
156
LXXXI
158
LXXXII
159
LXXXIII
161
LXXXIV
162
LXXXV
163
LXXXVI
165
LXXXVII
169
LXXXVIII
171
LXXXIX
175
XC
176
XCI
177
XCII
181
XCIII
199
XCIV
205
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