The physics of earthquake phenomena, Volumes 1-2 (Google eBook)

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Clarendon press, 1908 - Earthquakes - 283 pages
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Page 104 - ... European ports, with the equilibrium theory, and found that the tide-heights were about two thirds of the theoretical height. Accordingly he remarks : " On the whole we may fairly conclude that, whilst there is some evidence of a tidal yielding of the earth's mass, that yielding is certainly small, and the effective rigidity is at least as great as that of steel.
Page 260 - ... closely to this classification of the ground. The most violent destruction of buildings, as everybody knows, was on the made ground. This ground seems to have behaved during the earthquake very much in the same way as jelly in a bowl, or as a semi-liquid material in a tank. The earth waves which pass through the highly elastic rocks swiftly with a small amplitude seem in this material to have been transformed into slow undulations of great amplitude which were excessively destructive.
Page 200 - ˇilso by the appearance of slow undulations. The principal portion* denotes the most active part of an earthquake, which follows the preliminary tremors and consists of movements of larger amplitude. The earlier part of the principal portion is further subdivided into three successive stages as follows : — (a) The...
Page 259 - ... of the effects in the valleys with those in the hills, where the buildings are founded on firm rock except in a few notable instances. The most instructive of these instances is the city of San Francisco, and the facts observed there are entirely in harmony with the generalization above outlined. In the city of San Francisco we may recognize for preliminary purposes four types of ground: (1) The rocky hill slopes; (2) the valleys between the spurs of the hills which have been filled in slowly...
Page 85 - From the manner in which the house was creaking and the pictures swinging and flapping on the wall I knew the motion was large. My first thoughts were to see the seismographs at work; so I went to the earthquake room, where to steady myself I leaned against the side of the stone table, and for about two minutes watched the movements of the instruments. It was clear that the heavy masses suspended as horizontal pendulums were not behaving as steady points, but that they were being tilted, first to...
Page 119 - ... stress due to irregularities of its surface. Rupturing or yielding is not determined by the amount of stress only ; it depends in great measure upon how the stress is applied. For rupture to take place the stress must be different in different directions ; and the difference between the greatest and least stresses is an important datum in estimating the tendency to break. So far as can be judged, the only periodic stresses that exist of period long enough to tell upon the earth's substance are...
Page 119 - ... the earth's substance are the fortnightly, monthly, semi-annual, and annual tides, the annual variation of snowfall, and the steady annual and perhaps semi-annual oscillation of barometric pressure over the earth's surface. Inasmuch as the earthquake frequency reaches its maximum in winter wherever there is a marked winter season, we must pass from the annual tidal stress due to the sun as of little account. We seem, however, to find in the accumulations of winter snow, and in the long period...
Page 259 - Throughout the city we have a graded scale of intensity of destructive effects which corresponds closely to this classification of the ground. The most violent destruction of buildings, as everybody knows, was on the made ground. This ground seems to have behaved during the earthquake very much in the same way as jelly in a bowl, or as a semi-liquid material in a tank. The earth waves which pass through the highly elastic rocks...
Page 260 - April 18, save on the made ground, where deep foundations and large mass appear to be essential for the necessary degree of passivity. Pipe lines and bridges crossing the rift line present a peculiar, if not quite unique, engineering problem which will doubtless be solved in the near future.
Page 53 - Earthquake of Aug. 27, 1897 Earthquake of April 2O, 1896 Multiplication 7 times. displacement must be common to both, we may make the equilibrium of the jointed system neutral or as feebly stable as may be desired." A pointer attached to the steady point so obtained is made to trace out the motion on a stationary smoked glass plate. [See fig. 15.] The record thus obtained, however, being statical is not of very great use in accurate measurements. It is more convenient to obtain the records of the...

References from web pages

JSTOR: The Physics of Earthquake Phenomena
The Physics of Earthquake Phenomena. By Cargill Gilston Knott. xii and 283 pp., Illustrations, and Index. The Clarendon Press, oxforj, I9o08. Price, $4.75. ...
links.jstor.org/ sici?sici=0190-5929(1909)41%3A6%3C393%3ATPOEP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y

La costituzione della Terra
The Physics of Earthquake Phenomena, Oxford, 1908. pp. 156-258; The Propagalion of Earthquake Waves through the. Earth, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. ...
www.springerlink.com/ index/ M5838972G4R2R568.pdf

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