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Physical Properties and Functional Biomechanics of the Spine
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abnormal Acta Orthop analysis anatomic annulus applied arthrodesis associated axial rotation axis of rotation bilateral biomechanical bone graft Bone Joint Surg cancellous bone cent cervical spine Clin clinical instability clinical stability compressive load curve damage decompression Definition deformity degrees disease displacement effective elastic end-plate evaluation experimental extension facet dislocation facet joints factors failure fixation flexion forces fracture dislocation function herniated interspace intervertebral disc involved kinematics kyphosis laminectomy lateral bending lesion longitudinal ligament low back pain lumbar spine manipulation mechanism of injury ment methylmethacrylate Milwaukee brace motion segment muscles Nachemson nerve root neurologic deficit normal orthosis Panjabi patient physiologic position posterior elements pressure radiographs region resection sagittal plane scoliosis scoliotic shear shown in Figure spinal cord spine pain spinous processes stiffness stress structure suggested surgery surgical construct technique tensile thoracic spine tion torque torsional traction transverse trauma treatment vector vertebra vertebral body y-axis yellow ligament