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The Religious and Intellectual Background
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Abbasid accepted achieved al-Farabi al-Gha al-Ghazali al-Juwayni al-Kindi ar-Razi Arabic argument Ash'arite assassination assertion Avicenna Baghdad Batinism Batinites became belief Bouyges Buwayhid Cairo caliph century charismatic conception criticisms Damascus death Deliverance from Error doctrine dynasty Faith and Practice Fatimids Ghazali Greek Gurgan Hanbalites ideas ideational basis imam immediate experience important intellectual class Islamic community Islamic sciences Islamic society Islamic theology Islamic world Isma'ilite Jabre jurisprudence jurists knowledge later leader legal rites logic Massignon ment movement Mu'tazilites Muhammad Muslims mystics Neoplatonic nisba Nishapur Nizam-al-Mulk Nizamiyya official intellectual ordinary perhaps period Persian philo philosophers political position principles probably prophet Qur'an rational realize reason religion Religious Sciences Revival rulers ruling institution Samanid scepticism scholar-jurists scholars seems Seljuq sense Sharf Shi'ite sophers Subk sufis sufism suggestion Sunnite tazilites teaching tension theo theologians thought tion Traditions truth Umayyad views vizier whole worldliness