Elements of 3D Seismology, Volume 1

Front Cover
PennWell Books, 2004 - Science - 608 pages
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"Elements of 3D Seismology is a thorough introduction to the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of 3D seismic data. Developed from university courses, the text teaches the fundamentals of 3D seismic theory, techniques, and application."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  

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Contents

General Properties of Waves
3
12 Particle motion
4
13 Polarization
5
14 Elastic properties
6
15 Wavespeed
7
16 Display of wavefield data
8
17 Waveform
9
18 Impulse response
15
1212 Source array
239
1213 Acquisition geometry
242
1215 Positioning
245
1216 Cable feathering
247
122 Fixed receiver systems
248
123 Marine acquisition and the environment
251
Data Dimensionality and Components
253
Data Processing Creating the Seismic Image
259

19 Reciprocity
17
111 Wavefront and rays
18
112 Huygens principle
20
113 Fermats principle
22
114 Snells law
23
116 Dimensional effects 1161 Waveform
26
1162 Energy density and geometric spreading
27
Waves in Fluids 21 Why fluids?
33
22 Parameters
34
23 Equation of motion
36
24 The big picture
41
25 Velocity variation
42
27 Fine layering
45
Understanding Seismic Events
51
311 Uncertainty analysis applied to direct waves
54
321
56
322 Reflection coefficient
62
323 Normal incidence
63
324 Angular reflection coefficient
68
325 Postcritical reflection
69
326 Fresnel zonne
71
33 Headwave
78
tying it all together
81
35 Diffraction
84
36 Ghost
89
371 More events
92
372 Multiples
93
38 Classification
96
Reservoir Fluid Properties 41 Pressure and temperature range
99
421 Gas density
100
422 Gas modulus and velocity
101
43 Oil
102
432 Oil modulus and velocity
104
44 Brine
106
441 Brine density The equations are
107
45 Fluid mixture
108
451 Fluid density
109
452 Fluid modulus and velocity
110
Waves in Solids 51 Strain
113
52 Stress
115
53 Hookes law and elastic parameters
116
54 Equations of motion
118
55 Wave types and speeds
120
56 Mode conversion
123
57 Snells law and critical angles
125
59 Elastic reflection coefficient
127
510 Reflection coefficient approximations
130
511 Anisotropy
131
Waves in Porous Solids 61 Rock as a porous solid
135
62 Empirical relationships
136
63 Parameters
138
64 Equation of motion
139
66 Rock density
140
67 Gassmann theory and wavespeeds
141
68 Attenuation and dispersion
144
69 Rock velocity ranges
150
Acquisition Gathering Seismic Data
153
2D Land Acquisition
155
721 Source
156
722 Receiver
160
73 Field procedure
163
731 Vertical stack
164
74 SEGY headers and sorting
168
Financial Aspects of 3D Seismic 81 The big picture stock price
171
83 The exploration process
173
84 A savingsgain model
174
841 Savings
175
843 Net value profit and rate of return
176
85 Some industry trends
180
Survey Predesign 91 Acquisition parameters
185
92 Time sample rate
187
93 Offset range
188
94 Listen time
189
95 Spatial sampling and aliasing
191
96 Total signaltonoise improvement
196
Land Shooting Geometry 101 Coordinates and related quantities
201
102 Cross spread method
204
103 Swath method
208
104 Fringe
210
105 Perimeter or loop method
212
106 Cabling template shooting and fold
215
107 Crooked line 2D
219
Land 3D Design Optimization 111 Optimization and inversion
223
112 Assumptions target variables and constraints
226
113 A direct method
228
114 Method 2
229
115 Examples
230
Marine Acquisition Methods 121 Towed receiver systems 1211
235
Processing and Binning Overview 141 Why do we need to process seismic data?
261
142 Filtering and noise removal
264
143 Processing flow
266
144 Bins
270
1441 Bin size calculation
272
1442 Effects of fold and offset variation
275
1443 Anatomy of a bin
276
153 The 3D survey size 154 Processing speed
285
155 Speed and 3D migration
288
162 Deconvolution
291
163 Sorting
297
164 Normal moveout
300
165 Dip moveout
308
166 Common midpoint stacking
311
167 Statics
315
171 Constant velocity migration and modeling pairs
321
172 Dip from seismic slope
325
174 Variable velocity migration and modeling pairs 175 3D migration
326
176 Lateral resolution in 2D and 3D data
332
177 Survey design for linear vz
336
182 Stolt migration theory
347
183 Overview of algorithms
348
184 Kirchhoff depth migration methodology
350
185 Migration velocity analysis
355
1912 Anisotropy
361
1913 The 3D processes
362
1914 Depth migration
363
1921
364
1922 Velocity variation
371
1923 Anisotropy
373
Interpretation Extracting Geologic Information From Seismic Data
400
2011 Earth model
403
2012 Traveltimes
405
2013 Reflection coefficients
406
2014 Wavelet
407
2015 Convolutional model
410
2016 Examples
411
2017 Transmission loss
418
202 Tuning
422
203 Resolution
426
213 Interactive interpretation systems
437
214 Interactive interpretation project components
438
221 Data 2D subsets
443
222 Display of seismic data
446
223 Interpretation products
447
Structure
450
231 Fault detection and mapping
451
232 Time structure and horizon tracking
455
233 Timetodepth conversion methods
458
234 A vertical ray case history
461
235 Structural uncertainty
463
236 Extreme velocity variation
466
Stratigraphy 241 Stratigraphy and 2D seismic data
468
242 Stratigraphy and 3D seismic data
472
stacked sand channel systems
477
a case history
480
245 Carbonates
481
2521 General and special
485
2522 Dimensional
486
2523
487
253 Prediction of reservoir properties 2531 Procedure
488
2532 Case history
490
2533 Multiattribute analysis
491
2541 Complex trace
493
2543 Coherence
494
2544 Spectral decomposition
496
2545 Impedance
500
2546 Spice
501
Amplitude in Space Time and Offset 261 Prestack amplitude factors
504
262 Stack amplitude and R0
505
263 Predictive rock model
507
264 Calibrated rock model for Glenn sandstone
509
2651 Gas
510
2653 Oil saturation 2654 Lithology sandstonelimestone
512
2656 Lithology sandstoneclay
513
2658 Permeability
515
266 Timelapse 3D seismic
516
267 Offset effects AVO
521
Fourier Transform
526
A2 Frequency domain
528
A3 Spike input
532
A4 Properties of the Fourier transform
533
A5 Two spikes
537
A6 The discrete case
538
A7 Detection of periodic signals
539
A8 2D Fourier transform
540
Glossary of Terms
544
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 568 - PETERSON, RA, FILLIPPONE, WR, and COKER, FB, 1955, "The Synthesis of Seismograms from Well Log Data", Geophysics, XX, 3, p.
Page 563 - Chen, Q. and Sidney, S., 1997, Seismic attribute technology for reservoir forecasting and monitoring: The Leading Edge, 16, no.
Page 570 - Tracebased and geostatistical inversion of 3-D seismic data for thin-sand delineation: An application in San Jorge Basin, Argentina,

References to this book

About the author (2004)

Christopher L. Liner is Associate Professor of Geosciences at the University of Tulsa.

Bibliographic information