The Oceans and Climate
The oceans are an integral and important part of the climate system. The Oceans and Climate introduces the multi-disciplinary controls on air-sea interaction - physical, chemical and biological - and shows how these interact. It demonstrates how the ocean contributes to, and is affected by, climate processes on timescales from seasonal to millennial and longer. Past, present and future relationships between the ocean and climate are discussed. The new edition of this successful textbook has been completely updated throughout, with extensive new material on thermohaline processes in the ocean and their link to both abrupt climate change and longer-term climate change. It will prove an ideal course and reference book for undergraduate and graduate students studying earth and environmental sciences, oceanography, meteorology and climatology. The book will also be useful for students and teachers of geography, physics, chemistry and biology.
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Physical interaction between the ocean and atmosphere
Chemical interaction of the atmosphere and ocean
Biogeochemical interaction of the atmosphere and ocean
Largescale airsea interaction
The ocean and natural climatic variability
aerosols air-sea albedo anomaly atmosphere and ocean biological boundary carbon dioxide Chapter chemical climate system climatic change cloud coastal concentration convection convergence cooling Coriolis force cycle density depth discussed droplets Earth Ekman Ekman transport El Nino energy enhanced ENSO equator equatorial evaporation feedback flow flux gases glacial global greenhouse effect gyre impact increase Indian Ocean interaction ITCZ Kelvin waves land latent heat latitudes marine mid-latitudes million years BP mixed layer models molecules Monsoon North Atlantic Northern Hemisphere nutrients occur ocean and atmosphere ocean circulation orbit Oscillation oxygen ozone Pacific particles phytoplankton plankton polar poleward pressure gradient processes production regions relative Reproduced with permission Rossby waves rotation salinity sea level sea surface temperature sea water sea-ice seasonal shown in Fig solar radiation Southern stratosphere sub-tropical sulphate summer surface waters thermohaline circulation tropical troposphere upper ocean upwelling variability variation vertical warm water vapour wavelength wind speed winter zone