Ecosystems and human well-being: policy responses : findings of the Responses Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Island Press, Dec 14, 2005 - Nature - 621 pages
With the knowledge of possible outcomes, what kind of actions should we take? The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scored 74 response options for dealing with declines in ecosystem services and biodiversity, and managing drivers such as climate change and nutrient loading. This third volume in the MA series analyzes the track record of past policies and the potential of new ones. The challenge of reversing the degradation of ecosystems while meeting increasing demands for their services can be met only with significant policy and institutional changes. However, a difficult set of obstacles stand in the way. Policy makers must keep in mind that there are both trade-offs and synergies between human well-being, ecosystems, and ecosystem services, and that decisions regarding these tradeoffs are difficult and often contentious. The Responses volume ultimately establishes which policy options have the greatest chance to overcome the obstacles and generate positive outcomes. It will serve as an invaluable guide to the creation of stronger policy frameworks for the future.
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Response Options and Strategies
Framework for Evaluating Responses
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Africa agricultural approach aquaculture assessment basin benefits biodiversity biodiversity conservation biological carbon climate change coastal communities context Convention costs crop decision-making developing countries disease diversity ecological economic ecosys ecosystem services effective emissions environment environmental example factors fertilizer fish fisheries flood forest management forestry framework freshwater genetic global greenhouse greenhouse gas habitat human well-being impacts implementation important improved incentives increase inland water ecosystems institutions integrated interventions IPCC issues IUCN Kyoto Protocol land livestock malaria ment Millennium Ecosystem Assessment natural resources nutrient NWFPs organizations planning political pollution population potential precautionary principle problems production programs protected areas Ramsar Convention reduce regional regulation require response options risk river role scale scenarios sector social soil species stakeholders strategies target technologies tion trade trade-offs tropical uncertainty United Nations urban wetlands World Bank