European Commercial Expansion in Early Modern Asia
Variorum, 1997 - Business & Economics - 330 pages
Regular commercial contacts between Europe and Asia date back to at least the early years of the Christian era, but the pattern of trade underwent a structural modification following the Portuguese discovery of a route to the East Indies via the Cape of Good Hope. This volume illustrates the consequences of the arrival of large numbers of Europeans in the East. Europeans both participated in, modified and exploited existing trade relationships in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific. The studies reprinted here show how some environments, such as Japan, were hostile, whilst most states welcomed the European commercial contact. The necessity for Europeans to pay for Asian goods using precious metals is emphasised by the inclusion of articles in monetary transfers in Asian trade, a phenomenon which provides a link between economic developments in the Americas and those in Asia from the 16th century onwards.
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Navigation Between Portugal and Asia in the Sixteenth
The Portuguese in the Seas of the Archipelago During
Portuguese Country Traders in the Indian Ocean and the South
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Acch Aceh Acheh ANTT Arasaratnam archipelago arrived Asian Asian merchants Asian trade Asiatic bahar Bantam Batavia Bengal bewindhebbers Bugis Calcutta Canton captain cargoes carrack Carreira China trade Chinese cloth cloves commercial commodities Company's concession Copenhagen Coromandel coast Crown directors Dutch Dutch Policy early East India Company economic eighteenth century English East India established Europe European export factory French Glamann gold Governor Gujarati important India trade Indian merchants Indian Ocean Indonesia inter-Asian intra-Asian trade Japan Java Javanese Johore junks Kedah King Lisbon Livro London Macao Macassar Madras Malacca Malay Peninsula Manila Moluccas monopoly Mughal opium Pegu pepper period Pondicherry ports Portugal Portuguese Portuguese country traders precious metals private trade profits Pulicat region Riau rix-dollars route rulers sailed Selangor seventeenth century Siam silk silver Southeast Asia Spanish dollars Srivijaya St George Diary Straits sultan Sumatra Surat Tongking tonnage vessels voyages