The Making of a Mixed Language: The Case of Ma'a/Mbugu
The Mbugu (or Ma'á) language (Tanzania) is one of the few genuine mixed languages, reputedly combining Bantu grammar with Cushitic vocabulary. In fact the people speak two languages: one mixed and one closely related to the Bantu language Pare. This book is the first comprehensive description of these languages. It shows that these two languages share one grammar while their lexicon is parallel. In the distant past the people shifted from a Cushitic to a Bantu language and in the process rebuilt a language of their own that expresses their separate ethnic identity in a Bantu environment. This linguistic history is explained in the context of the intricate history of the people. The discussion of the processes that were involved in the formation of Ma'a/Mbugu is extremely relevant for both creole studies and for contact linguistics in general.
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Area clans and language preference
Derivation of 1nner Mbugu by dummy suffix
Historical and geographical background
Oral traditions clans
Some Shambaa words in Normal Mbugu
1nner Mbugu words shared with Taita Sagala
Sample of fauna vocabulary and its origin
Adjectives and other nominal modifiers
1n variables or other words
Notes on syntax codeswitching and texts
1+NMb 1Mb NMb 1Mb-Bum 1nner and Normal 1nner Mbugu 1nner Mbugu words 1raqw adjectives agreement allomorph banana Bantu languages bird Brenzinger Bumbuli cattle causative clan class pair code-switching consonant Cushitic languages Cushitic source Dahalo derived dialect Eastern Cushitic Ehret etymol etymology example final vowel goat Gorwaa grammar Gweno head noun high tone l+NMb lateral fricative lexical manipulation linguistic locative Ma'a Maasai Magamba marker Mbugwe meaning language Meinhof mixed languages mology morphemes Mous Nango nasal negative tenses non-Bantu Normal Mbugu North Pare noun class noun class prefix noun class system noun prefix occur Old Kenyan Cushitic origin Oromo parallel lexicon Pare mountains plural Possibly prenasalised preposition pronouns Rangwi roots Sagala Shambaa South Pare Southern Cushitic speakers stem subject prefix suffix Swahili syllable Table Taita Thomason tion truncation rule Usambara mountains verb form voiceless Vudee West Rift Yaaku Zigua