The British Moralists and the Internal 'Ought': 1640-1740

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Cambridge University Press, Apr 28, 1995 - History - 352 pages
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This book is a major work in the history of ethics, and provides the first study of early modern British philosophy in several decades. Professor Darwall discerns two distinct traditions feeding into the moral philosophy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On the one hand, there is the empirical, naturalist tradition, comprising Hobbes, Locke, Cumberland, Hutcheson, and Hume, which argues that obligation is the practical force that empirical discoveries acquire in the process of deliberation. On the other hand, there is the group including Cudworth, Shaftesbury, Butler, and in some moments Locke, which views obligation as inconceivable without autonomy and which seeks to develop a theory of the will as self-determining.
  

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Contents

The British moralists inventing internalism
1
Culverwell and Locke classical and modern natural law
23
Hobbes ethics as consequences from the passions of men
53
Cumberland obligation naturalized
80
Cudworth obligation and selfdetermining moral agency
109
Locke autonomy and obligation in the revised Essay
149
Shaftesbury authority and authorship
176
Hutcheson moral sentiment and calm desire
207
Butler conscience as selfauthorizing
244
Hume norms and the obligation to be just
284
Concluding reflections
319
Works cited
333
Index
347
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About the author (1995)

Stephen Darwall is the John Dewey Collegiate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Michigan. He has written widely on moral philosophy and its history, and is the author of "Impartial Reason" (1983), "The British Moralists and the Internal 'Ought': 1640-1740" (1995), "Philosophical Ethics" (1998), and "Welfare and Rational Care" (2002). He is the editor, with Allan Gibbard and Peter Railton, of "Moral Discourse and Practice ""(1997).

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