Signposts in Cyberspace:: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation

Front Cover

The Domain Name System (DNS) enables user-friendly alphanumeric names-domain names-to be assigned to Internet sites. Many of these names have gained economic, social, and political value, leading to conflicts over their ownership, especially names containing trademarked terms. Congress, in P.L. 105-305, directed the Department of Commerce to request the NRC to perform a study of these issues. When the study was initiated, steps were already underway to address the resolution of domain name conflicts, but the continued rapid expansion of the use of the Internet had raised a number of additional policy and technical issues. Furthermore, it became clear that the introduction of search engines and other tools for Internet navigation was affecting the DNS. Consequently, the study was expanded to include policy and technical issues related to the DNS in the context of Internet navigation. This report presents the NRC's assessment of the current state and future prospects of the DNS and Internet navigation, and its conclusions and recommendations concerning key technical and policy issues.

  

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

NAVIGATING THE INTERNET CONCEPTS AND CONTEXT
19
11 The Internet
20
12 The Domain Name System
24
13 Internet Navigation
28
14 The Dynamics of Change
29
141 Increasing Scale
30
143 Increasing Economic Value
31
145 Internationalization
32
522 Composition of the ICANN Board
200
523 Nature of ICANNs Management Processes
202
524 Alternatives
204
Nongovernmental Organization and Academic ICANN Study Proposal 2001
206
ICANN as Registry for the Root 2004
208
Newnet ProposalICANN as a Private Trade Association 2002
211
Center for Democracy and Technology Proposal Narrowed Scope with Broad Participation 2004
212
Reformed ICANNNarrowed Scope with Broad Participation 2003
214

15 Internet Naming and Navigation
33
16 Objectives of This Report
35
17 Roadmap for This Report
37
THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM EMERGENCE AND EVOLUTION
39
22 Designing the Domain Name System
42
221 Simple Mnemonic and Deeply Hierarchical Names
45
222 Experimental Features
46
23 Deploying the Domain Name System
47
232 Lookup Timeouts
48
233 Convergence in Electronic Mail Systems
49
234 The Whois Database
52
235 The DNS as a Production System
53
24 Continuing Growth and Evolution of the Internet as a Technical Infrastructure
54
25 Economic and Social Value of Domain Names
57
252 The Rise of Conflicts Over Domain Names
61
Trademark Conflicts
63
Beyond Trademark Conflicts
67
Beyond SecondLevel Domain Names
70
253 Whois
72
26 Globalization
73
27 Administration of Domain Names
74
THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM CURRENT STATE
79
31 Operation of the Domain Name System
80
311 A New Remote Query
82
312 Local Query
84
313 Repeat Query
85
32 Architecture of the Domain Name System
87
BIND and Others
88
324 Standards
91
DNS Zone Data File
92
325 Functions and Institutions
93
Providing Root Name Server SoftwareInternet Software Consortium Inc and Other Software Providers
95
33 ImplementationThe Domain Name System Root Zone
96
331 Characteristics of the Root Zone
97
Unique Characteristics
98
332 Technical System of the Root Zone
100
333 Institutional Framework of the Root Zone
105
Maintaining the Root Zone FileVeriSign
108
Operating the Root Name ServersThe Root Name Server Operators
109
334 Assessment
110
34 ImplementationThe TopLevel Domains
113
gTLDs
114
Recharacterizing TLDs
116
342 Technical System of the TLDs
120
343 Institutional Framework of the TLDs
121
Selecting New TLDs
122
Selecting the Organizations Responsible for the TLDs
125
Selecting the TLD Registry Operators
129
Operating the TLD Registries
133
35 ImplementationThe Second and ThirdLevel Domains
134
352 Institutional Framework of the Second and ThirdLevel Domains
135
Registering Domain Names
137
Resolving Domain Name Conflicts
140
353 Assessment
150
THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY PROSPECTS
152
41 Improving the Security of the Domain Name System
153
411 Mechanics of DNSSEC
154
412 Deployment of DNSSEC
156
42 Linking the Telephone and Internet Naming System
158
421 Mechanics and Operations of ENUM
160
422 Technical and Public Policy Issues
162
423 Alternate Models
163
43 Internationalizing Domain Names
164
431 Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications
165
ClientSide Support
167
432 Registries and Registrars
169
433 Chinese Japanese and Korean Scripts
170
434 Conclusions
173
441 Traffic Aggregation
174
442 Site Finder by VeriSign
175
Technical Issues
176
Institutional Issues
182
443 Conclusions
184
THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
187
51 Governance of the Domain Name System
189
511 Relationship to Governance of the Internet
190
513 Alternatives
192
International Treaty Organization
195
52 Management of the Domain Name System
198
521 Scope of ICANNs Authority
199
Summary of the Alternatives
217
53 Oversight and Operation of Root Name Servers
219
Evaluation
221
532 Alternatives
222
Competitive Market
224
Distributed Root Zone File
226
DOC Relaxes MoU Requirement
228
533 Conclusions and Recommendations
229
54 Regulation of Generic TopLevel Domains
230
541 Should New gTLDs Be Added? If So How Many New gTLDs and How Fast?
231
Technical and Operational Performance Issues
232
User Needs and Economic Issues
234
Recommendations
238
542 If New gTLDs Are to Be Added What Types Should They Be and How Should They and Their Operators Be Selected?
239
Which Types of gTLDs Should Be Added?
240
How Should the Operators of gTLDs Be Selected?
242
What Selection Process Should Be Used?
244
543 Recommendations
252
55 Oversight of CountryCode TopLevel Domains
254
551 Current Situation
255
552 Alternatives
257
Thick ICANN
259
Thin ICANN
260
International Oversight
261
Selfgoverning Root Management Organization
262
553 Conclusions
263
561 Assessment of the UDRP
264
562 Proposed Improvements to the UDRP
268
563 Disputes Concerning Internationalized Domain Names
271
57 Provision and Protection of Whois Data
273
Data Accuracy
274
Data Privacy
275
572 Whois and Internationalized Domain Names
278
573 Conclusion and Recommendation
279
INTERNET NAVIGATION EMERGENCE AND EVOLUTION
281
61 The Nature of Internet Navigation
282
612 Twosided Process
283
613 Complexity and Diversity of Uses Users and Providers
286
614 Lack of Human Intermediaries
287
615 Democratization of Information Access and Provision
288
616 Lack of Context or Lack of Skill
290
617 Lack of Persistence
291
618 Scale
294
62 Internet Navigation Aids and ServicesHistory
295
621 Aiding Navigation via the Internet
296
622 Aiding Navigation Through the World Wide Web
298
63 AddendumSearching the Web Versus Searching Libraries
308
INTERNET NAVIGATION CURRENT STATE
313
71 Navigation Aids and Services
314
712 Direct Access via Hyperlinks
315
713 Direct Access via Bookmarks
316
714 Direct Access via KEYWORDS
317
715 Direct Access via Metadata
319
716 Navigation via Directory Systems
324
717 Navigation via Search Engines
326
Algorithmic Search
327
Monetized Search
330
Search Engine Marketing and Optimization
331
The Deep Dark or Invisible Web
332
Metasearch Engines
335
72 Internet NavigationInstitutional Framework
338
722 The Business of Internet Navigation
340
723 The Navigation Services Market
345
Innovation
347
INTERNET NAVIGATION SELECTED PROSPECTS AND ISSUES
349
811 Navigation Service Algorithms and Operations
350
812 Navigation Interfaces
351
813 Navigation to Audio and Visual Materials
353
814 Making Greater Use of Contextual Information
355
815 Improving Persistence
358
816 Understanding User Behavior
360
82 Institutional Issues
361
822 Privacy
364
823 Trademarks and Copyright
365
Trademark
366
Copyright
368
THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM AND INTERNET NAVIGATION
371
Biographies of Committee Members and Staff
377
Speakers at Meetings and Participants at Site Visits
389
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Bibliographic information