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1st sing 2d pi 3d pi 3d sing a-stems accent accusative action-nouns active added adjectives adverbs anomalous anusvara aorist appears becomes belonging beside Brahmanas character circumflex compounds conjugation consonant corresponding dative declension derivatives desiderative diphthong doubtless dual especially euphonic example external combination feminine final member final vowel formation frequent genitive gerund grammar grammarians guna guna-strengthening guttural Hindu Hindu grammarians imperative imperfect Indra infinitive inflection initial irregular later language lingual masc masculine mute namely nasal neut neuter noun number of roots occur older language once optative palatal participle passive perfect persons plural preceding prefix preposition present present-stem prior member pronominal pronouns quotable rare reduplication rules Sanskrit secondary semivowel sibilant small number sometimes sonant sporadic stem strengthening strong forms subjunctive suffix surd tarn tense tense-stem texts u-vowel union-vowel usually Veda Vedic verb verbal visarga vrddhi weak forms words
Page 16 - The lingual mutes are by all the native authorities denned as uttered with the tip of the tongue turned up and drawn back into the dome of the palate (somewhat as the usual English smooth r is pronounced). They are called by the grammarians murdhanya, literally head-sounds, capitals, cephalics; which term is in many European grammars rendered by 'cerebrals'.
Page 96 - The proper value of the genitive is adjectival; it belongs to and qualifies a noun, designating something relating to the latter in a manner which the nature of the case, or the connection, defines more nearly.
Page vi - to treat the language throughout as an accented one"; "to cast all statements, classifications, and so on, into a form consistent with the teachings of linguistic science.
Page 225 - ... having a variety of form comparable with that of present-stems. 600. Practically, the present-system is the most prominent and important part of the whole conjugation, since, from the earliest period of the language, its forms are very much more frequent than those of all the other systems together.
Page xiv - ... of Panini's rules (which contain not a little that seems problematical, or even sometimes perverse); to determine what and how much genuine usage he had everywhere as foundation, and what traces may be left in the literature of usages possessing an inherently authorized character, though, unratified by him.
Page 406 - Words are used prepositionally along with all the noun-cases excepting the dative. But in general their office is directive only, determining more definitely, or strengthening, the proper case-use of the noun. Sometimes, however, the caseuse is not easy to trace, and the noun then seems to be more immediately "governed" by the preposition — that is, to have its case-form more arbitrarily determined by its association with the latter.
Page 29 - Is borne up at the higher pitch to the end of the acnte syllable, does not ordinarily drop to grave pitch by an instantaneous movement, but descends by a more or less perceptible slide in the course of the following syllable. No Hindu authority suggests the theory of a middle or intermediate tone for the enclitic, any more than for the independent circumflex. For the most part, the two are identified with one another, in treatment and designation.
Page 87 - ... which that object could be attained. The vocative is not considered and named by the native grammarians as a case like the rest; in this work, it will be given in the singular (where alone it is ever distinguished from the nominative otherwise than by accent) at the end of the series of cases. A compendious statement of the uses of the cases is given in the following paragraphs: 267. Uses of the Nominative. The nominative is the case of the subject of the sentence, and of any word qualifying...
Page 198 - Voice. There are (as in Greek) two voices, active and middle, distinguished by a difference in the personal endings. This distinction is a pervading one: there is no active personal form which does not have its corresponding middle, and vice versa; and it is extended also in part to the participles (but not to the infinitive).