Physical Optics (Google eBook)

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The Macmillan Company, 1905 - Physical optics - 546 pages
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Page 134 - Nicol's prism turned in any way. [Shown.] (5) The spectrum of the reflected light is frequently found to consist almost entirely of a comparatively narrow band. When the angle of incidence is increased, the band moves in the direction of increasing refrangibility, and at the same time increases rapidly in width. In many cases the reflection appears to be almost total.
Page 479 - ... plane running east and west, while there is no scattered ray along the north and south line. If the primary ray is unpolarized, the light scattered north and south is entirely due to that component which vibrates east and west, and is therefore perfectly polarized, the direction of its vibration being also east and west. Similarly any other ray scattered horizontally is perfectly polarized, and the vibration is performed in the horizontal plane. In other directions the polarization becomes less...
Page 81 - ... should be slowly lowered (one end resting on the bottom of the dish) until the rectangular piece detaches itself and floats freely on the surface. The edges of the tank are well greased, and then lowered carefully upon the film, to which they will adhere. The whole must then be lifted from the water in an oblique direction, when the film will be found covering the tank and exhibiting the most beautiful interference colors.
Page 479 - According to our hypothesis, the foreign matter may be supposed to load the ether, so as to increase its inertia without altering its resistance to distortion. If the particles were away, the wave would pass on unbroken and no light would be emitted laterally. Even with the particles retarding the motion of the ether, the same will be true if, to counterbalance the increased inertia, suitable forces are caused to act on the ether at all points where the inertia is altered. These forces have the same...
Page 47 - ... reflected wave-front. By drawing the orthogonal surface we avoid the complication of having to measure off the distances around a corner. The orthogonal surface is an epicycloid formed by the rolling of a circle of a diameter equal to the radius of curvature of the mirror on the mirror's surface, and normals can be erected by drawing the...
Page 204 - In fig. 2 we have a diagram illustrating this condition. This plate when held before the eye showed a ring of wide aperture surrounding a brilliant source of light, with four distinct concentrations, two very bright and two quite faint. The appearance reminded one most forcibly of a solar halo with parhelia or mock suns. A photograph of this curious diffraction pattern was made by directing a camera towards a brilliant point source of light, and placing one of the frilled plates before the lens....
Page 479 - ... suitable forces are caused to act on the ether at all points where the inertia is altered. These forces have the same period and direction as the undisturbed luminous vibrations themselves. The light actually emitted laterally is thus the same as would be caused by forces exactly the opposite of those acting on the medium otherwise free from disturbance, and it only remains to see what the effect of such forces would be. In the first place there is necessarily a complete symmetry around the direction...
Page 481 - ... the scattered light. In the early stages of the precipitation the polarization is complete in a perpendicular direction, and incomplete in oblique directions. After an interval the polarization begins to be incomplete in the perpendicular direction, the light which reaches the eye when the nicol is in the position of minimum transmission being of a beautiful blue, much richer than any thing that can be be seen in the earlier stages.
Page 80 - ... strikes the lens : this can be accomplished by darkening the room, fastening a sheet of paper in front of the lens, and then adjusting the plates so that the paper is illuminated as much as possible. The image formed by the lens will be found to have very sharp straight edges, on one of which the edge of the diaphragm can be set in such a manner as to allow but very little light to pass when the intervening medium is homogeneous ; a very slight change, however, in any portion may be sufficient...
Page 84 - ... stopper of a decanter placed inside, it will be found to be quite invisible when viewed through the small aperture. A uniform blue glow fills the interior of the ball and only the most careful scrutiny reveals the presence of a solid object within it. One or two of the side facets of the stopper may appear if they happen to reflect or show by refraction any portion of the line of junction of the two hemispheres.

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