Programming in Prolog

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 25, 2003 - Computers - 299 pages
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Originally published in 1981, this was the first textbook on programming in the Prolog language and is still the definitive introductory text on Prolog. Though many Prolog textbooks have been published since, this one has withstood the test of time because of its comprehensiveness, tutorial approach, and emphasis on general programming applications.

Prolog has continued to attract a great deal of interest in the computer science community, and has turned out to be the basis for an important new generation of programming languages and systems for Artificial Intelligence. Since the previous edition of Programming in Prolog, the language has been standardised by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and this book has been updated accordingly. The authors have also introduced some new material, clarified some explanations, corrected a number of minor errors, and removed appendices about Prolog systems that are now obsolete.

  

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Contents

Tutorial Introduction
1
12 Objects and Relationships
2
13 Programming
3
14 Facts
4
15 Questions
6
16 Variables
8
17 Conjunctions
10
18 Rules
16
613 Watching Prolog at Work
143
More Example Programs
145
72 Searching a Maze
148
73 The Towers of Hanoi
152
74 Parts Inventory
153
75 List Processing
155
76 Representing and Manipulating Sets
159
77 Sorting
161

19 Summary and Exercises
22
A Closer Look
25
211 Constants
26
212 Variables
27
22 Characters
29
23 Operators
30
24 Equality and Unification
32
25 Arithmetic
34
26 Summary of Satisfying Goals
37
261 Successful satisfaction of a conjunction of goals
38
262 Consideration of goals in backtracking
42
263 Unification
43
Using Data Structures
47
32 Lists
50
33 Recursive Search
53
34 Mapping
57
35 Recursive Comparison
60
36 Joining Structures Together
63
37 Accumulators
67
38 Difference Structures
70
Backtracking and the Cut
73
41 Generating Multiple Solutions
74
42 The Cut
80
43 Common Uses of the Cut
85
432 The cutfail Combination
90
433 Terminating a generate and test
92
44 Problems with the Cut
96
Input and Output
99
51 Reading and Writing Terms
100
512 Writing Terms
101
52 Reading and Writing Characters
104
521 Reading Characters
105
522 Writing Characters
106
53 Reading English Sentences
108
54 Reading and Writing Files
111
541 Opening and closing streams
112
542 Changing the current input and output
113
543 Consulting
115
55 Declaring Operators
116
Builtin Predicates
119
61 Entering New Clauses
120
62 Success and Failure
121
63 Classifying Terms
122
64 Treating Clauses as Terms
123
65 Constructing and Accessing Components of Structures
127
66 Affecting Backtracking
132
67 Constructing Compound Goals
134
68 Equality
136
69 Input and Output
137
610 Handling Files
138
611 Evaluating Arithmetic Expressions
139
612 Comparing Terms
140
78 Using the Database
164
782 Gensym
165
783 Findall
167
79 Searching Graphs
169
710 Sift the Twos and Sift the Threes
174
711 Symbolic Differentiation
177
712 Mapping Structures and Transforming Trees
179
713 Manipulating Programs
182
714 Bibliographic Notes
185
Debugging Prolog Programs
187
81 Laying out Programs
188
82 Common Errors
191
83 The Tracing Model
194
84 Tracing and Spy Points
200
841 Examining the Goal
204
842 Examining the Ancestors
205
843 Altering the Degree of Tracing
206
844 Altering the Satisfaction of the Goal
207
845 Other Options
209
85 Fixing Bugs
210
Using Prolog Grammar Rules
213
92 Representing the Parsing Problem in Prolog
216
93 The Grammar Rule Notation
221
94 Adding Extra Arguments
223
95 Adding Extra Tests
227
96 Summary
230
97 Translating Language into Logic
231
98 More General Use of Grammar Rules
233
The Relation of Prolog to Logic
237
102 Clausal Form
240
103 A Notation for Clauses
246
104 Resolution and Proving Theorems
248
105 Horn Clauses
251
106 Prolog
252
107 Prolog and Logic Programming
254
Projects in Prolog
259
112 Advanced Projects
262
Answers to Selected Exercises
267
Clausal Form Program Listings
271
Writing Portable Standard Prolog Programs
277
C2 Different Prolog Implementations
278
C3 Issues to Look Out For
279
C4 Definitions of some Standard Predicates
280
C41 Character Processing
281
C42 Directives
283
C43 Stream InputOutput
284
C44 Miscellaneous
287
Code to Support DCGs
289
D1 DCG Support Code
290
Index
295
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