## Three Hundred Years of GravitationTo commemorate the 300th anniversary of the publication of Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Stephen Hawking and Werner Israel assembled a series of unique review papers by many of the world's foremost researchers in cosmology, relativity, and particle physics. The resulting volume reflects the significant and exciting advances that have been made in these fields since the editors' acclaimed volume, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey (CUP 1979). Newton's immense contribution to the physical sciences is assessed, and its relevance to today's physics made clear. The international group of contributors then chart the major developments in the study of gravitation, from Newtonian gravity to black hole physics. In the fields of galaxy formation, inflationary and quantum cosmology, and superstring unification, the book provides important overviews written by workers involved in the many advances described. By shaping such a wide-ranging and scholarly series of articles into a cohesive whole, the editors have created a fitting and lasting memorial to the man who continues to inspire scientists the world over. |

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### Contents

Newtonianism and todays physics | 5 |

Newton quantum theory and reality | 17 |

R Penrose | 18 |

References | 48 |

R Blandford | 50 |

Experimental gravitation from Newtons Principia to Einsteins | 80 |

The problem of motion in Newtonian and Einsteinian gravity | 128 |

The Masters Lodge Selwyn College Cambridge | 130 |

K S Thome | 332 |

galaxy formation | 459 |

Gravitational interactions of cosmic strings | 499 |

A Vilenkin | 500 |

Inflationary cosmology | 524 |

S Weinberg | 546 |

Inflation and quantum cosmology | 604 |

Avadh Bhatia Physics Laboratory University of Alberta Edmonton T6G 2J1 Canada | 606 |

the evolution of an idea | 199 |

J Rees | 201 |

Department of Rclativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology Observatoire de Paris 5 Place | 214 |

S W Hawking | 276 |

Astrophysical black holes | 277 |

Gravitational radiation | 330 |

Quantum cosmology | 631 |

Superstring unification | 652 |

Covariant description of canonical formalism in geometrical | 676 |

E Witten | 678 |

### Common terms and phrases

acceleration accretion amplitude angular approximation Astron astronomical Astrophys Astrophysical baryon binary black hole bodies calculations Chandrasekhar constant coordinate cosmology curvature Damour density detectors discussed distance dynamical Earth Eddington effects Einstein electromagnetic emission energy equations of motion event horizon evolution expansion experimental experiments external false vacuum fluctuations force frequency galactic galaxies gravitational collapse gravitational field gravitational radiation gravitational waves gravity-wave Hawking horizon inflation inflationary internal inverse square law Lett light limit mass measurements mechanics metric momentum neutron stars Newton Newtonian observed optical orbital parameters particle perturbations Phys physics possible post-Newtonian potential precession problem propagation pulsar quadrupole quantum quantum mechanics quasars radio radius redshift relativistic relativity rotation scalar field scale Schwarzschild Section singularity solar solution space spacetime spin stellar string string theory structure supernovae surface tensor theoretical theory Thorne torsion balance universe vacuum velocity wavelength white dwarf X-ray Zel'dovich