Youth, Pornography, and the Internet

Front Cover
The Internet has changed the way we access the world. This is especially true for kids, who soak up new technologies like eager little sponges. They have access to an enormous array of material, including educational links, sports info, chat rooms and, unfortunately, pornography. But we must approach our need to protect children with care to avoid placing unnecessary restrictions on the many positive features of the Internet.

Youth, Pornography, and the Internet examines approaches to protecting children and teens from Internet pornography, threats from sexual predators operating on-line, and other inappropriate material on the Internet. The National Research Council s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board explores a number of fundamental questions: Who defines what is inappropriate material? Do we control Internet access by a 17-year-old in the same manner as for a 7-year-old? What is the role of technology and policy in solving such a problem in the context of family, community, and society?

The book discusses social and educational strategies, technological tools, and policy options for how to teach children to make safe and appropriate decisions about what they see and experience on the Internet. It includes lessons learned from case studies of community efforts to intervene in kids exposure to Internet porn.

Providing a foundation for informed debate, this very timely and relevant book will be a must-read for a variety of audiences.
  

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Contents

Introduction
17
WHAT IS PORNOGRAPHY?
20
13 OTHER TYPES OF INAPPROPRIATE MATERIAL AND EXPERIENCES
22
14 A BROAD SPECTRUM OF OPINION AND VIEWS
25
15 FOCUS AND STRUCTURE OF THIS REPORT
28
Technology
31
212 The Nature of the Internet Medium and a Comparison to Other Media Types
32
213 Internet Access Devices
35
103 CONTEXTUAL ISSUES FOR SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES
222
104 PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AND SUPERVISION
225
105 PEER ASSISTANCE
233
106 ACCEPTABLE USE POLICIES
235
107 AFTERTHEFACT STRATEGIES
240
108 EDUCATION
242
1082 Information and Media Literacy
245
1083 Collateral Issues
249

214 Connecting to the Internet
36
The Role of Addressing
38
216 Functionality of the Internet
39
217 Cost and Economics of the Internet
47
219 The Relative Newness of the Internet
48
22 TECHNOLOGIES OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
49
23 TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO ACCESS CONTROL AND POLICY ENFORCEMENT
51
232 Technologies for Authentication and Age Verification
59
233 Encryption and EndtoEnd Opacity
65
234 Anonymizers
66
24 WHAT THE FUTURE MAY BRING
68
The Adult Online Entertainment Industry
71
31 THE STRUCTURE AND SCALE OF THE ONLINE ADULT ENTERTAINMENT INDUSTRY
72
32 THE GENERATION OF REVENUE
74
33 PRACTICES RELATED TO MINORS
78
34 WHAT THE FUTURE MAY HOLD
79
343 Future Products and Services
81
35 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION AND AGGRESSIVE PROMOTION
82
4 Legal and Regulatory Issues
84
412 The First Amendment Pornography and Obscenity
86
413 The First Amendment and Protecting Children from Exposure to Sexually Explicit Material
89
414 The First Amendment Rights of Minors
92
415 The First Amendment and Child Pornography
93
416 The First Amendment in Public Libraries
94
417 The First Amendment in Public Schools
95
418 The First Amendment and the Commercial Advertising of Sexually Explicit Material
96
422 Child Pornography Statutes
97
423 The Communications Decency Act
99
424 The Child Online Protection Act
101
425 The Childrens Internet Protection Act
103
426 The Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act
104
427 State Statutes
107
429 International Dimensions
112
Children Media and Exposure to Sexually Explicit Material
115
52 SEXUALITY IN CULTURE
120
53 THE ROLE OF MEDIA IN PROVIDING INFORMATION ON SEXUALITY TO YOUTH
123
54 DIMENSIONS OF EXPOSURE AND ACCESS TO THE INTERNET
127
542 Sources and Channels of Exposure
128
543 Extent of Exposure
132
55 INTERNET EXPOSURE TO SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL SOLICITATIONS AND HARASSMENT
136
551 Deliberate Search for Sexually Explicit Material
138
553 Sexual Solicitations and Approaches
141
554 Harassment
142
The Research Base on the Impact of Exposure to Sexually Explicit Material What Theory and Empirical Studies Offer
143
62 EMPIRICAL WORK
149
622 Sexually Violent Material
152
623 Exposure to Nonviolent Sexual Material
153
624 Caveats and Cautions
155
63 FACTORS AFFECTING THE IMPACT ON MINORS OF EXPOSURE TO SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL
157
633 Gender
158
634 Special Needs
159
636 The Type of Sexually Explicit Material
160
Beyond the Science Perspectives on Impact and the Public Debate
161
72 SPECULATIONS AND OTHER PERSPECTIVES ON POSSIBLE IMPACT
166
73 RHETORICAL CONCERNS AND ISSUES OF PUBLIC DEBATE
172
74 JUDGMENTS IN THE ABSENCE OF A RELIABLE RESEARCH BASE
175
75 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS
178
PART II
181
Approaches to Protection from Inappropriate Material
183
812 In Practice
186
82 DIMENSIONS OF PROTECTION
188
83 THE TIME LINE OF PROTECTIVE ACTIONS
190
84 DIFFERING INSTITUTIONAL MISSIONS OF SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES
191
85 THE POLITICS OF PROTECTION AND INAPPROPRIATE MATERIALWHO AND WHEN?
192
86 TECHNIQUES OF PROTECTION
194
87 APPROACHES TO PROTECTION
196
Legal and Regulatory Tools
201
92 CIVIL LIABILITY FOR PRESENTING OBSCENE MATERIAL ON THE INTERNET
205
931 Age Verification
206
932 Plain Brown Wrappers and Age Verification
208
933 Labeling of Material That Is Obscene for Minors
209
935 Prohibiting the Practice of Mousetrapping to Web Sites Containing Material That Is Obscene for Minors
212
94 ENFORCEMENT OF RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS
213
95 STREAMLINING THE PROCESS OF HANDLING VIOLATIONS
214
96 SELFREGULATORY APPROACHES
215
97 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
216
Social and Educational Strategies to Develop Personal and Community Responsibility
218
102 DEFINITION OF A SOCIAL OR EDUCATIONAL STRATEGY
221
109 COMPELLING AND SAFE CONTENT
250
1010 PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENTS AND MEDIA CAMPAIGNS
254
1011 FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS ABOUT SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES
256
A Perspective on TechnologyBased Tools
258
112 CONTEXTUAL ISSUES FOR TECHNOLOGYBASED TOOLS
261
113 THE QUESTIONS TO BE ASKED OF EACH TOOL
265
12 TechnologyBased Tools for Users
267
1212 How Well Does Filtering Work?
275
1213 Who Decides What Is Inappropriate?
286
1214 How Flexible and Usable Is the Product?
289
1215 What Are the Costs of and the Infrastructure Required for Filtering?
292
1216 What Does the Future Hold for Filtering?
298
1217 What Are the Implications of Filtering Use?
301
1218 Findings on Filters
303
122 MONITORING
304
1221 What Is Monitoring?
305
1222 How Well Does Monitoring Work?
307
1223 Who Decides What Is Inappropriate?
309
1224 How Flexible and Usable Are Products for Monitoring?
310
1225 What Are the Costs and Infrastructure Required for Monitoring?
311
1226 What Does the Future Hold for Monitoring?
314
1227 What Are the Implications of Using Monitoring?
315
1228 Findings on Monitoring
316
123 TOOLS FOR CONTROLLING OR LIMITING SPAM
317
1231 What Are Technologies for Controlling Spam?
318
1232 How Well Do SpamControlling Technologies Work?
319
1233 Who Decides What Is Spam?
320
1236 What Does the Future Hold for SpamControlling Systems?
321
124 INSTANT HELP
322
1242 How Well Might Instant Help Work?
324
1245 What Are the Costs and Infrastructure Required for Instant Help?
325
1247 What Are the Implications of Using Instant Help?
326
TechnologyBased Tools Available to NonEnd Users
327
1312 How Well Would a xxx TopLevel Domain Work?
330
1313 Who Decides What Material Should Be Confined to xxx Web Sites?
332
1316 What Does the Future Hold for a xxx TopLevel Domain?
333
1317 What Are the Implications of Using a xxx TopLevel Domain?
334
132 A KIDS TOPLEVEL DOMAIN
335
1323 Who Decides What Material Should Be Allowed in kids Web Sites?
337
1325 What Are the Costs and Infrastructure Required for a kids TopLevel Domain?
338
1328 Findings on a kids TopLevel Domain
339
1331 What Are Age Verification Technologies?
340
1332 How Well Do Age Verification Technologies Work?
341
1333 Who Decides What Is Inappropriate?
343
1334 How Flexible and Usable Are Products for Verifying Age?
344
1336 What Does the Future Hold For Age Verification Systems?
345
1337 What Are the Implications of Using Age Verification Systems?
347
1338 Findings on Age Verification Technologies
348
134 TOOLS FOR PROTECTING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
349
1343 Who Decides What Is Inappropriate?
351
1344 How Flexible and Usable Are Products for Protecting Intellectual Property?
352
1347 What Are the Implications of Tools for Protecting Intellectual Property?
353
PART III
355
Findings Conclusions and Future Needs
357
1412 Developmental Dimensions
358
1413 Legal Dimensions
359
1414 Technical Dimensions
360
1415 Economic Dimensions
361
142 ON THE IMPACT ON CHILDREN OF EXPOSURE TO SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL AND EXPERIENCES
362
143 ON APPROACHES TO PROTECTION
364
144 TRADEOFFS AND COMPLEXITY
368
1441 Social and Educational Tradeoffs
370
1442 Technology Tradeoffs
371
1443 Public Policy Tradeoffs
373
145 TAKEAWAY MESSAGES FOR DIFFERENT PARTIES
374
1452 Teachers and Librarians
378
1453 Industry
380
1454 Makers of Public Policy
383
146 RESEARCH NEEDS
386
147 CONCLUSION
387
InformationGathering Sessions of the Committee
391
Glossary and Acronyms
407
Selected Technology Issues
418
Site Visit Synthesis
430
Biographies
434
Index
445
Copyright

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Page xx - Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered.

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References from web pages

CSTB Publication: Youth, Pornography, and the Internet
A report from the National Research Council which discusses various social and educational issues of Internet control
www7.nationalacademies.org/ CSTB/ pub_pornography.html

Executive Summary | YOUTH, PORNOGRAPHY, AND THE INTERNET | Dick ...
Dick Thornburgh and Herbert S. Lin, Editors. Committee to Study Tools and Strategies for Protecting Kids from Pornography and Their Applicability to Other ...
www.nap.edu/ html/ youth_internet/ es.html

bob.nap.edu Youth, Pornography, and the Internet Dick Thornburgh ...
Youth, Pornography, and the Internet Dick Thornburgh and Herbert S. Lin, Editors Committee bookmark discussion and review ...
www.startaid.com/ review/ 1608088/ Youth-Pornography-and-the-Internet--Dick-Thornburgh-and-Herbert-S--Lin-Editors--Comm...

Issues in Science and Technology: Youth, Pornography, and the Internet
Youth, Pornography, and the Internet. Thornburgh, Dick. The Internet is both a source of promise for our children and a source of concern. ...
findarticles.com/ p/ articles/ mi_qa3622/ is_200401/ ai_n9371109/ print

Youth, Pornography, and the Internet (Thornburgh, Dick and Lin ...
Youth, Pornography, and the Internet (Thornburgh, Dick and Lin, Herbert S) -- Bibliography (issues) Online by the Union of International Associations (UIA), ...
www.diversitas.org/ db/ x.php?dbcode=re& go=e& id=13571480

Focus on the Family's Issue Analysis: Pornography
18Thornburgh and Lin, Youth, Pornography and the Internet, p. 3-6. 19Thornburgh and Lin, Youth, Pornography and the Internet, p. 3-6. ...
www.citizenlink.org/ FOSI/ pornography/ A000001625.cfm

Internet Pornography - Research and Read Books, Journals, Articles ...
Youth, Pornography, and the Internet: Although Technology and Public Policy Can Help, Social and Educational Strategies Are the Key to Protecting Children, ...
www.questia.com/ library/ communication/ internet-pornography.jsp

Internet Safety News
The United States (us) National Research Council study released this month titled Youth, Pornography, and the Internet1 confirms what many parents already ...
www.netsmartz.org/ news/ May02-8.htm

Computer Law & Security Report : Book Reviews - Published by Elsevier
The Art of Deception; Youth Pornography and the Internet; Cyber Policy and Economics in an Internet Age; Preservation of the Integrity of Electronic Records ...
linkinghub.elsevier.com/ retrieve/ pii/ S0267364903004138

Bibliothèque du CCP
Youth, Pornography and the Internet / Thornburgh, Dick; Lin, Herbert S., eds.; Committee to Study Tools and Strategies for Protecting Kids from Pornography ...
www.cpc.gc.ca/ library/ topic_ice_f.htm

About the author (2002)

Former United States Attorney General