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adnate aestivation albumen alternate animals anthers apex appear axil axillary axis bark base blossom bracts branches buds calyx capsule carbonic acid carpels cells cellular circle coherent commonly compound consists contain corolla cotyledons cross-section dehiscence destitute diagram dioecious distinct drupe ducts elongated embryo enlarged exhibit Exogenous Family fertile filaments five fleshy floral envelopes flower foliage fruit furnished germination grow growth herbs imbricated inclosed inflorescence inner inserted juice kind layer leaf leaves lobes magnified matter membrane nearly nourishment one-celled opposite organs ovary ovules oxygen parenchyma parietal peculiar perianth pericarp petals petiole pistil placenta plants pollen pollen-tube portion produced raceme radicle receptacle roots seed sepals separate showing shrubs single soil sometimes species spiral spores stalk stamens stem stigma stipules stomata structure styles Subord summit surface termed thickened tion trees tropical trunk tube usually vegetable vernation Vertical section whole wood woody tissue
Page 337 - raised in the garden of the Horticultural Society from seeds taken from the stomach of a man, whose skeleton was found thirty feet below the surface of the earth, at the bottom of a barrow which was opened near Dorchester. He had been buried with some coins of the Emperor Hadrian ; and it is therefore probable that the seeds were sixteen or seventeen hundred years old.
Page 444 - Ericaeeffi (the Heath Family). Shrubs or sometimes herbs. Flowers regular or nearly so, 4-5-merous, the petals sometimes distinct. Stamens mostly distinct, free from the corolla, as many or twice as many as its lobes, and inserted with it (either hypogynous or epigynous), anthers two-celled, often appendaged, commonly opening by terminal pores. Styles and stigmas united into one. Ovary with two or more cells and usually numerous ovules, free, or in Vaccinese coherent with the calyxtube.
Page 138 - The Plant Is a Composite Being:, or Community, lasting, in the case of a tree, through an indefinite and often immense number of generations. These are successively produced, enjoy a term of existence, and perish in their turn. Life passes onward continually from the older to the ne,wer parts, and death follows, with equal step, at a narrow interval.
Page 343 - ... organ, and from his description it is evident that he confounded the two kinds since discovered, regarding them as different stages of one structure. The announcement of this discovery seemed to destroy all grounds for the assumption of distinct sexes, not only in the ferns but in the other Cryptogams, since it was argued that the existence of these cellular organs, producing moving spiral filaments, the so-called spermatozoa, upon the germinating fronds, proved that they were not to be regarded...
Page 206 - ... consume the oxygen of the air, and give back carbonic acid, which is injurious to their life, this carbonic acid is the principal element of the food of vegetables, is consumed and decomposed by them, and its oxygen restored for the use of animals. Hence the perfect adaptation of the two great kingdoms of living beings to each other ; — each removing from the atmosphere what would be noxious to the other ; — each yielding to the atmosphere what is essential to the continued existence of the...
Page 378 - De Candolle) pursue the opposite course, beginning with the most perfect Flowering Plants, and concluding with the lowest grade of Flowerless Plants. The first mode possesses the advantage of ascending by successive steps from the simplest to the most complex structure ; the second, that of passing from the most complete and best understood to the most reduced and least known forms ; or, in other words, from the easiest to the most difficult ; and is therefore the preferable plan.
Page 230 - In the preceding chapter we have recognized the close analogy of flower-buds to leaf-buds, and consequently of flowers to branches, and of the leaves of the flower to ordinary leaves. The plant continues for a considerable time to produce buds which develope into branches. At length it produces buds which expand into blossoms. Is there an entirely new system introduced when flowers appear ? Are the blossoms formed upon such a different plan, that the general laws of vegetation, which have sufficed...
Page 505 - The calyptra, separating early at its base, is carried up on the apex of the capsule ; if it splits on one side it is hood-shaped or cuculliform, — if not, it is mitre-shaped or mitriform.
Page 179 - Sunflower three and a half feet high, with a surface of 5,616 square inches exposed to the air, was found to perspire at the rate of twenty to thirty ounces avoirdupois every twelve hours, or seventeen times more than a man.