Behavior of elk (Cervus canadensis) during the rut
Presents detailed descriptions of elk behavior during the rut and quantitative data on certain aspects of these breeding behavior patterns. Based on study conducted in Rocky Mountains of Banff National Park, Alberta.
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2V2 year old age-sex classes alarm barks alert trot Altmann antlers apparently approached a cow Banff National Park behavior patterns bout of heterosexual bull elk bull groups bull sometimes bull's bulls older bulls or spikes cfcf cow groups cow's perineum cows and calves demonstrated different age-classes displace displayer Diurnal variation dominance relationship ears ejaculated Elk Cervus canadensis extending head flicked his tongue fluid Graf harem bulls head bobbing herd cows hetero heterosexual activity heterosexual behavior heterosexual encounters heterosexual mounting hindlegs holding mouth open incomplete mount individual sampling jawing Kcps kicked Murie muzzle nearly neck non-contact agonistic encounters observed occasion old bulls older bulls older than 3V2 palpitated pelvic thrust penial region penis peripheral bulls posture preorbital gland recumbent rubbed rut the bull saplings seen Sept sexual approach solitary bulls sparring activity sparring encounters stiff foreleg stotted Thrashing and digging threat gesture wallow whistling younger bulls