Challenge and Change in Education: The Experience of the Baltic States in the 1990's
This book is concerned essentially with the compulsory schools and the work of teachers following 'rebirth' or the regaining of independence in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Although often considered 'en bloc' each country has its own history, its own culture and its own literature. There are important linguistic and religious distinctions to be made as well as distinctive trading liaisons, both currently and historically. For the Baltic States the final decade of the twentieth century has been turbulent in the extreme and the 1990' s have posed major challenges to teachers and to school directors. Not the least of these has been the challenge of regaining independence and nationhood, after years of Soviet occupation. There has also been significant privatisation and a slow but purposeful change from a command to a market economy. Changing the curriculum may be easy, 'changing the mind', by comparison, may well be a more lengthy process. For the future the Baltic States seek membership of the European Union within the first decade of the new millennium. There will be opportunities for schools to develop closer links with the West, to promote exchanges of teachers and pupils and to join in networks promoting the 'European dimension' in different ways.
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A Historical and Current Context
B Education in the Baltic States Historical and Current Context
The Educational Systems in the 1990s
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activities basic school Birzea centres challenge and change citizenship classroom communist compulsory context Council Council of Europe culture curricula Czech Republic decade democratic economic educational challenge educational change educational institutions educational reform educational system established Estonia and Latvia Estonian educational Estonian language Europe European Union experience goals grades Gymnasium ideology implementation important included initiatives Interview on educational involved issues Jelgava kindergarten Klaipeda Komsomol Latvia and Lithuania Latvian language learning legislation lessons Lithuanian language Ministry of Education modernisation opportunities organisation parents pedagogical political population priorities private schools problems professional development programmes promote pupils rebirth reform process regaining independence Republic Riga role Russian language Russian speaking salaries school directors social pedagogue society Soros Foundation Soviet Union staff subjects Tallinn teacher education teaching textbooks three Baltic three countries Tiger Leap transition University University of Latvia Vilnius