Analysis of Environmental Radionuclides (Google eBook)
The purpose of this book is to present a state of art summary of current knowledge of methods of assessment of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments. It cover the traditional methods of radioactivity measurements such as radiometrics techniques, but also recent developments in the mass spectrometry sector. The book starts with a short preface introducing the subject of the book, summarising content and philosophy of the book, as well as the most important historical achievements. The scientific topics are introduced by description of sampling methods, optimisation of sampling sites and sampling frequency. The recent developments in radiochemical separation methods using chromatography resins for the treatment of actinides, transuranics and other groups of radioelements are also described. No other book is available covering all aspects of environmental radioactivity measurements, although remarkable progress has been made in detection techniques over the last ten years. At present the new methods enable to carry out investigations which were not possible before, either because of lack of sensitivity or because of the fact that they required too large samples.
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Chapter 4 Radiometric determination of anthropogenic radionuclides in seawater
Chapter 5 Monte Carlo simulation of background characteristics of gammaray spectrometersa comparison with experiment
Chapter 6 Underground laboratories for lowlevel radioactivity measurements
Chapter 7 Accelerator mass spectrometry of longlived light radionuclides
Chapter 9 Analysis of radionuclides using ICPMS
Chapter 10 Resonance ionization mass spectrometry for trace analysis of longlived radionuclides
A new challenge for modern analytical instrumental techniques in support of radioecology
Chapter 12 Activation analysis for the determination of longlived radionuclides
Chapter 13 In situ and airborne gammaray spectrometry
Chapter 14 Underwater gammaray spectrometry
Chapter 8 Accelerator mass spectrometry of longlived heavy radionuclides
abundance sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry actinides activation analysis Anal analytical anticoincidence applications atoms background blank calibration Chem chemical component concentrations contamination cosmic rays count rate Currie decay depth detection decisions detection limit determination distribution efficiency electron elements energy environment environmental samples Equation estimated fallout Figure gamma gamma spectrometry gamma-ray Hirose HPGe detectors ICP-MS inductively coupled plasma Instrum interferences iodine ionization ions Irish Sea irradiation isotope ratio isotopes laser lead shield long-lived low-level materials measurements monitoring NaI(Tl neutron activation neutron activation analysis normal Nucl nuclear nuclide oxide Pacific particles peak photons plasma plutonium Poisson Poisson distribution Povinec produced quantification radiation radioactivity Radioanal radiocarbon radiometric radionuclides radon random reaction relative seawater sediment Sellafield separation signal soil solution spatial spectra spectrum standard surface techniques thermal tion trace uncertainty underground laboratory uranium variance