Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early-Twentieth-Century Britain (Google eBook)

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University of Chicago Press, Nov 15, 2010 - Science - 487 pages
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Although much has been written about the vigorous debates over science and religion in the Victorian era, little attention has been paid to their continuing importance in early twentieth-century Britain. Reconciling Science and Religion provides a comprehensive survey of the interplay between British science and religion from the late nineteenth century to World War II.

Peter J. Bowler argues that unlike the United States, where a strong fundamentalist opposition to evolutionism developed in the 1920s (most famously expressed in the Scopes "monkey trial" of 1925), in Britain there was a concerted effort to reconcile science and religion. Intellectually conservative scientists championed the reconciliation and were supported by liberal theologians in the Free Churches and the Church of England, especially the Anglican "Modernists." Popular writers such as Julian Huxley and George Bernard Shaw sought to create a non-Christian religion similar in some respects to the Modernist position. Younger scientists and secularists—including Rationalists such as H. G. Wells and the Marxists—tended to oppose these efforts, as did conservative Christians, who saw the liberal position as a betrayal of the true spirit of their religion. With the increased social tensions of the 1930s, as the churches moved toward a neo-orthodoxy unfriendly to natural theology and biologists adopted the "Modern Synthesis" of genetics and evolutionary theory, the proposed reconciliation fell apart.

Because the tensions between science and religion—and efforts at reconciling the two—are still very much with us today, Bowler's book will be important for everyone interested in these issues.
  

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Contents

A LEGACY OF CONFLICT?
1
Confrontation Cooperation or Coexistence?
6
Victorian Background
14
Science and Religion in the New Century
19
THE SCIENCES AND RELIGION
25
THE RELIGION OF SCIENTISTS
27
Changing Patterns of Belief
30
Scientists and Christianity
34
THE NEW THEOLOGY IN THE FREE CHURCHES
215
Precursors of the New Theology
217
Campbell and the New Theology
224
Modernism in the Free Churches
232
ANGLICAN MODERNISM
244
Modernism and the New Natural Theology
246
Charles F DArcy
257
E W Barnes
260

Scientists and Theism
42
Method and Meaning
50
Science and Values
56
SCIENTISTS AGAINST SUPERSTITION
59
Science and Rationalism
62
Religion without Revelation
70
Marxists and Other Radicals
75
Science Religion and the History of Science
80
PHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY
87
Esther and Spirit
89
The New Physics
101
The Earth and the Universe
114
EVOLUTION AND THE NEW NATURAL THEOLOGY
122
Science and Creation
124
Evolution and Progress
130
The Role of Lamarckism
142
Darwinism Revived
147
MATTER LIFE AND MIND
160
The Origin of Life
162
Vitalism and Organicism
166
Mind and Body
178
Psychology and Religion
188
THE CHURCHES AND SCIENCE
191
THE CHURCHES IN THE NEW CENTURY
193
The Challenge of the New
197
The Churches Response
203
W R Inge
270
Charles Raven
277
THE REACTION AGAINST MODERNISM
287
Evangelicals against Evolution
289
Liberal Catholicism
296
The Menace of the New Psychology
308
Science and Modern Life
315
Theology in the Thirties
317
Roman Catholicism
321
THE WIDER DEBATE
329
SCIENCE AND SECULARISM
331
Against Idealism
338
Popular Rationalism
347
The Social Reformers
354
RELIGIONS DEFENDERS
362
From Idealism to Spiritualism
365
Creative and Emergent Evolution
376
Evolution and the Human Spirit
384
Progress through Struggle
388
The Christian Response
394
EPILOGUE
407
BIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX
421
BIBLIOGRAPHY
429
INDEX
471
Copyright

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Page 430 - Balfour. — THE FOUNDATIONS OF BELIEF; being Notes Introductory to the Study of Theology.
Page 451 - THE BIBLE AND CHRISTIAN LIFE. Cr. too. 6s. Lodge (Sir Oliver). THE SUBSTANCE OF FAITH, ALLIED WITH SCIENCE : A CATECHISM FOR PARENTS AND TEACHERS Eleventh Edition. Cr. too. u. net, MAN AND THE UNIVERSE: A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE ADVANCE IN SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE UPON OUR UNDERSTANDING OF CHRISTIANITY.

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About the author (2010)

Peter J. Bowler is a professor of the history of science at the Queen's University of Belfast. He is the author or editor of more than a dozen books, including Life's Splendid Drama: Evolutionary Biology and the Reconstruction of Life's Ancestry, 1860-1940, also published by the University of Chicago Press.

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