Vegetation Degradation in Central Asia under the Impact of Human Activities

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Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 28, 2002 - Nature - 182 pages
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Yoque en el campo he nacido dig6 que mis cantos son para los unos sonidos, y para otros intencion. H. Hernandes - Martin Fierro. The period of active influence of the people on desert environments in Central Asia counts more than 2,000 years. It includes several stages of the social and the economic development of human society - from primitive culture of hunters to developed modern society with great changes of envi ronment and "nature remaking".Heritage of the past is one of the main causes of land degradation in Central Asia.So, only historical analysis of relations between the man and the desertcould give infor mation for awareness of desertification. What an idea have the people about the desert? In the mind of many people "desert" is identified with a sterile, lifeless and gloom land unsuitable for life. The mass media, specially the cinema sup ports this idea. Very popular subject of many films is the death of travelers in the desert from thirst. Eventhe names of hot winds (the "gibly" inSahara, the "samum" inArabian desertand the "afganets" inCentral Asia) fill the minds of peoplewith horror. There are many legends about armies buried inthe sand,aboutflourishing oases and towns covered with sand drifts. Inthese legends the truth is mixed with fiction. But as known, "the truth isstronger than fiction".
  

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
12 Global extension of desertification
2
13 Change of biological diversity
4
14 Degradation of the drylands of Asia
5
Capital punishment for ecological crimes
9
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
11
22 Climate and desertification
12
Specific climatic features of Central Asia
13
55 Multistage desertification monitoring
92
56 Conclusion
94
STATUS OF DEGRADED ARID LANDS
95
Plant species from The Red Data Book
97
62 Degradation of forests
98
Volume of nuts and other products stored in forests
99
Protective and sanitary functions of forests
102
Degradation of forests during the Soviet period
103

Drought and desertification
14
2 3 Soils
18
Soils of the irrigation zone
19
Vegetation of sandy deserts
20
Vegetation of salt deserts
21
25 Livestock raising
22
26 Crop production
25
Dryland agriculture
28
28 Summary and conclusion
30
HISTORICAL INTERACTION OF DESERT AND SOCIETY
33
32 Land use and impact of war during the Middle Ages
37
33 Land reclamation ecology and social life in Russian Turkestan
40
Russian conquest of Central Asia
41
Crop production
42
Traditional system of animal husbandry
45
Forestry
47
Khiva and Bukhara
49
A new commonwealth of the Socialist nations
54
35 We shall even control the drought
56
Transfer of river flow from Siberia
58
The dam of the KaraBogazGol Gulf
60
36 Conclusion
63
POLITICAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF LAND DEGRADATION DURING THE SOVIET PERIOD
65
Rooting out the survivals of the past from the peoples mind
66
Improvement of public health care
68
42 Cadre determines all
69
43 Change of social and ecological conditions in rural area
71
44 Pripiska and its role in land degradation
73
Cotton affair in Uzbekistan
74
Pripiska and corruption in other republics of Central Asia
75
45 Conclusion
76
METHODOLOGY OF DESERTIFICATION ASSESSMENT AND MAPPING
77
Scales for desertification assessment
78
Criteria for assessment of vegetation degradation
81
Criteria for assessment of water logging rangelands
82
Criteria for assessment of inherent risk of desertification
83
Specifications of remote sensing for desertification monitoring
85
5 3 Compilation of desertification map of Turkmenistan
87
Database on desertification
88
54 Use of NOAAAVHRR data to study desertification
90
63 Degradation of desert rangelands
104
Vegetation degradation around watering points
105
64 Soil degradation
107
Water erosion
108
65 Change of desert environment along the Karakum Canal bordering area
110
66 Summary and conclusion
113
CHANGE OF WILDLIFE
115
Protection of animals in the reserves
118
Saigak
119
Kulan
120
Snakes
121
73 Hunting and poaching
122
74 Conclusion
124
ACCUMULATED ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN NEW INDEPENDENT COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL ASIA AFTER 1991
125
Corruption and shady economy
126
Refugees and displaced persons
128
82 Scarcity of water resources
130
83 Worsening ecological and social conditions in the areas affected by desertification
133
Tedzhen case study
135
84 Enormous economic and social damage caused by desertification
136
85 Conclusion
140
CONVENTION TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION A GLEAM OF HOPE AT THE END OF THE TUNNEL
141
92 Regeneration of forests
143
93 New approaches and arrangements
144
What is better topdown approach or bottomup approach?
145
Capacity building
146
Promotion of new sources of income in agriculture
147
94 National Action Program to Combat Desertification NAPCD in Turkmenistan
148
Conservation of biodiversity
149
Melioration of irrigated farm lands
150
95 Creation of enabling environment for implementation of NAPCD
153
International cooperation
156
96 Summary and conclusion
157
SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSION
159
102 Uptodate situation
160
103 The requirements of future activities in desertification control
161
GLOSSARY OF LOCAL AND SPECIAL TERMS
163
REFERENCES
171
INDEX
181
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