The Fiscus Judaicus and the Parting of the Ways
Marius Heemstra argues that the harsh administration of the Fiscus Judaicus under the Roman emperor Domitian (81-96) and the reform of this Fiscus under the emperor Nerva (96-98), accelerated the parting of the ways between Judaism and Christianity, resulting in two separate religions.From 96 CE onwards, Roman authorities used a more pointed definition of Jew, which made it easier for them to distinguish between Judaism (an accepted religion within the empire) and Christianity (an illegal religious movement). This parting should primarily be interpreted as a break between Jewish Christians and mainstream Judaism. Both parties claimed to be the true representatives of the continuing history of Israel. In this study, the author pays special attention to the Roman and Jewish context of the Book of Revelation, the Letter to the Hebrews, and the Gospel of John, including the debate about the birkat ha-minim .
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Domitians Harsh Administration of the Fiscus Judaicus
Nervas Reform of the Fiscus Judaicus
Their Crimes and Punishments from Nero
Jewish Christians and the Fiscus
B Date of Hebrews
accused addressees apostate Jews argue atheism Aune birkat ha-minim Book of Revelation Boyarin Cassius Dio chapter Christian communities circumcised Claudius coin conclusion confiscation context covenant crime daicus delatores drachmai Dunn early Christian edict Eisenbaum emperor Eusebius execution faith fiscus Judaicus fourth century Fredriksen Gamaliel II Gentile Christians God-fearers gods Goodman Gospel of John Hebrews heretics Hist important ish Christians Israel issue Jerusalem Jesus Jewish Christians Jewish life improfessi Josephus Judaicus under Domitian Judaism and Christianity Keresztes Kierspel letter living a Jewish mainstream Judaism mentioned Messiah Nero Nerva non-Jewish Christians non-Jews pagan passage Paul persecution of Christians Peter Pliny probably prosecuted proselytes punishment rabbinic referring regarded reign of Domitian religio licita religion religious Roman authorities Roman Empire Roman perspective Rome sacrifice test scholars second century seems Smallwood Suetonius synagogue Tacitus Testament Thompson tians tion traditional Trajan Vespasian victims writings