The measurement of appearance
This second edition of a unique text/reference identifies the appearance attributes of objects and the methods available for measuring them, bringing together much material not previously organized for ready reference. The primary premise here is that ``object appearance'' involves not only color, but such attributes as gloss, luster, and translucency. The first part of the book, concerned with nature of appearance, draws from the fields of physiology and psychology and considers the eye-brain combination and the way it receives and interprets light signals. This is followed by a consideration of the optical properties of objects from the physical standpoint. The second part of the book deals with the numerical scales used to measure object appearance. The discussion here draws on psychophysics in describing the uses of physical techniques to give numbers having psychological significance. The third part of the book covers instruments for the measurement of the attributes of object appearance, their principles of design, and a survey of the major ones in use. The final chapter discusses specific applications of appearance measurement. Includes appendixes and a glossary.
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LIGHT SOURCES AND ILLUMINATION
INTERACTION OF OBJECTS WITH LIGHT
THE HUMAN OBSERVER AND VISUAL
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Adams Adams-Nickerson appearance attributes appearance measurement ASTM beam blue Chapter chips chromaticity diagram CIE Illuminant CIELAB CIELUV CM CM color constancy color difference color measurement color solid Color System colorimeter Colorimetry component computed correlation designed diffuse reflection dimensions direction dominant wavelength dyes equations filters fluorescent formula function geometric attributes glass gloss glossmeter goniophotometer haze human observer Hunter identify industry instrument Judd lamp light source luminosity luminosity function MacAdam MacAdam ellipses match materials metal metamerism meters method Munsell Color Munsell Color System Nickerson opacity opponent-colors optical optical brightener paint paper photodetector pigments plastic primary reflectance factor reflectometer response sample saturation selected shown in Figure space specific specimen spectral curve spectrophotometer spectrum specular gloss specular reflection Standard Observer surface Table textile Translucent transmitted tristimulus colorimeter tristimulus values tungsten uniform color scales unit of color viewing visual evaluations Wyszecki yellow