A Treatise on Chemistry Applied to the Manufacture of Soap and Candles: Being a Thorough Exposition, in All Their Minutiae, of the Principles and Practice of the Trade, Based Upon the Most Recent Discoveries in Science and Art (Google eBook)

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Parry and McMillan, 1856 - Candles - 599 pages
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Page 498 - ... obtain at the same time free fat acids and solution of glycerine. I mix the fatty body to be operated upon with from a third to a half of its bulk of water...
Page 499 - I place the fat or oil in a fluid state in the vessel, A, with from one-third to one-half its bulk of warm water; the disk or piston. B, perforated with numerous small holes, being kept in rapid motion, up and down, in the vessel, A, causes the fat, or oil and water, to form an emulsion, or intimate mechanical mixture. A...
Page 503 - The hot mixture of fat acids and solution of glycerine which escape from the exit valve of the apparatus are separated from each other by subsidence ; the fat acids may then be washed with water, and the solution of glycerine concentrated and purified by the usual means. The fat acids thus produced may, like those obtained by other methods, be used in the manufacture of candles and soap, and applied to various purposes according to their quality ; and when desired they may also be first bleached...
Page 121 - ... of this material may be generally perceived under their abdomen. One of these bees is now seen to detach itself from one of the central garlands of the cluster, to make a way amongst its companions to the middle of the vault or top of the hive, and by turning itself round to form a kind of void, in which it can move itself freely".
Page 499 - I have employed and found to be convenient for this purpose, are about an inch external diameter, and about half an inch internal diameter, being such as are in common use for Perkins's hot-water apparatus.
Page 87 - Tiie fat oils are contained in that part of the seed which gives birth to the cotyledons ; they are not found in the plumilla and radicle.
Page 35 - ... metal. He has thus the protoxide, sesquioxide, and peroxide of manganese, the protoxide and sesquioxide of iron, the protoxide and binoxide of tin, &c. This distinction is useful, and will be adopted in the present work. Certain inferior oxides, which do not combine with acids, are called suboxides ; such as the suboxide of lead, which contains less oxygen than the oxide distinguished as the protoxide of the same metal. The compounds of chlorine and several other elements are distinguished in...
Page 529 - This process consists in melting the wax by means of steam until it becomes very liquid, and then passing it, along with the steam, through a kind of serpentine or worm, by which a large surface becomes exposed to the action of the steam. After traversing the worm, it is received in a pan with a double bottom heated by steam, where water is added in order to wash it ; from this it is elevated by a pump, kept hot by steam, into another pan similarly heated, and where it is also treated with water,...
Page 499 - The process may be performed more rapidly and also continuously by causing the mixture of fatty matter and water to pass through a tube or continuous channel, heated to the temperature already mentioned...
Page 462 - H ; each of these pieces of india-rubber is pierced with a hole somewhat smaller than the wick, and as the wick is passed through this hole the latter compresses it so tightly as to prevent the fat from leaking out, in like manner the leakage is prevented between the bottom or tip of the mould and the rubber by the pressure of the former upon the latter. The spools, K, hold wick, enough to supply the moulds for several months ; the end of each wick is passed from the spool up through the...

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