Analysis of racial disparities in the New York Police Department's stop, question, and frisk practices
RAND Corporation, Jul 25, 2008 - Racial profiling in law enforcement - 59 pages
Raw statistics for encounters between New York City police officers and pedestrians suggest large racial disparities--89 percent of 2006 stops involved nonwhites. The New York City Police Department asked RAND to help it understand this and identify recommendations for addressing potential problems. RAND researchers analyzed 2006 pedestrian-police encounters, finding small racial differences in rates of frisk, search, use of force, and arrest.
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Training of Officers on Stop Question and Frisk Policies
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29 percent 50 percent black pedestrians black suspects boroughs Brooklyn North compares the racial comparison CompStat Computed from NYPD contraband recovery crime-suspect descriptions distribution of stops false discovery rate flagged officers force frisk rates Frisked or Searched frisked white suspects Gelman Hispanic suspects hit rate indicate internal benchmark Internal-Benchmark Analysis matched nonblack nonwhite pedestrians nonwhite suspects number of stops NYPD officers observed officers stopped outlier overstopping patrol percent of similarly percent of stops percent versus police precinct race racial bias racial disparities racial distribution racial groups racial profiling radio run rates of frisk reason recovery rate reference group residential census result Sample Officer similarly situated nonwhites similarly situated stops similarly situated white slightly likelier Staten Island statistical stop features Stop Outcomes stop patterns Stop Rates stopped substantially stops involved Summon issued suspect descriptions suspected crime suspects were slightly U.S. Census Bureau use-of-force violent crimes weapon possession York City