Pliocene and Pleistocene, Volume 3

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General Books LLC, 2010 - 172 pages
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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1906 Excerpt: ...Although the surfaces of these various formations are gently sloping plains, yet there are occasionally low elevations which rise above and shallow, saucer-like depressions which sink below the general level. When a plain surface is found abutting against a scarp, or when an elevation rises like an island from the midst of a terrace and is bounded by a scarp on a portion of its circumference, it is interpreted as representing an island against which the waves beat and cut the scarp. An example of an isolated elevation lifting itself above the general level of the surrounding terrace and bounded by a well-defined sea-cliff is seen in Capitol Hill, Washington, where the prominence on which the capitol is located was an island in the Talbot sea. It has a well-developed scarp on the north, west, and east, although toward the south it slopes away more gently. On the surface of the Wicomico and Talbot terraces there are a number of minor terraces developed which are separated by low, inconspicuous scarps but a few feet in height. These are located especially toward the heads of the larger estuaries and on the sides of the valleys of the small tributaries. For some time these minor terraces were extremely confusing in attempting to establish a method of discrimination between the more important terraces, but it was soon discovered that they were local in development and not continuous, and after a large number of observations had been compared throughout the Coastal Plain, it was found that the great continuous terrace surfaces were those which have been now designated as the Lafayette, Sunderland, Wicomico, and Talbot formations. The minor terraces seem to be due to pauses in uplift and to the swing of the stream as it cut first on one bank and then on another. T...

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