Machine Translation: Linguistic Characteristics of MT Systems and General Methodology of Evaluation
The use of the computer in translating natural languages ranges from that of a translator's aid for word processing and dictionary lookup to that of a full-fledged translator on its own. However the obstacles to translating by means of the computer are primarily linguistic. To overcome them it is necessary to resolve the ambiguities that pervade a natural language when words and sentences are viewed in isolation. The problem then is to formalize, in the computer, these aspects of natural language understanding. The authors show how, from a linguistic point of view, one may form some idea of what goes on inside a system's black box, given only the input (original text) and the raw output (translated text before post-editing). Many examples of English/French translation are used to illustrate the principles involved.
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2 IDENTIFICATION OF SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS
3 LINGUISTIC COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM
4 BUILDING A SYSTEM
5 LINGUISTIC EVALUATION BY THE USER
APPENDIX A A SYNTHESIS OF EVALUATIONS OF MACHINE TRANSLATION SYSTEMS
APPENDIX B AN EXAMPLE OF A FULLY AUTOMATIC MT CHAIN
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adjective analyzed arguments base form BLEED CC N2 Nl complementation complex compound words computer-assisted translation computerized translation system conjunction constituents constraints context Coordinate conjunctions determine dictionary entries direct transfer domain English errors example fluid French given GPREP CP grammatical category head noun homography human revision human translator hydraulic idiom interactive Lehrberger lexeme lexical category lexical item linguistic components linguistic phenomena machine translation system MAHT METEO METEO system modifier modules morphological analysis MT systems N3 CC N2 N4 CC N3 N5 CC N4 normalized structure noun phrase noun sequences operation original text parser parsing pivot language polysemy potential problems raw output relations representation selectional restrictions semantic features Slype source language source text standard grammar strategy sublanguage SUFFIX syntactic syntax SYSTRAN target language equivalents TAUM TAUM-AVIATION System test sentences tion trans transfer dictionary transfer rules translated text translation process Université de Montréal