Paper Prototyping: The Fast and Easy Way to Design and Refine User Interfaces

Front Cover
Morgan Kaufmann, 2003 - Computers - 378 pages
12 Reviews
Do you spend a lot of time during the design process wondering what users really need? Do you hate those endless meetings where you argue how the interface should work? Have you ever developed something that later had to be completely redesigned?

Paper Prototyping can help. Written by a usability engineer with a long and successful paper prototyping history, this book is a practical, how-to guide that will prepare you to create and test paper prototypes of all kinds of user interfaces. You'll see how to simulate various kinds of interface elements and interactions. You'll learn about the practical aspects of paper prototyping, such as deciding when the technique is appropriate, scheduling the activities, and handling the skepticism of others in your organization. Numerous case studies and images throughout the book show you real world examples of paper prototyping at work.

Learn how to use this powerful technique to develop products that are more useful, intuitive, efficient, and pleasing:

* Save time and money - solve key problems before implementation begins
* Get user feedback early - use it to focus the development process
* Communicate better - involve development team members from a variety of disciplines
* Be more creative - experiment with many ideas before committing to one

*Enables designers to solve design problems before implementation begins

*Five case studies provide real world examples of paper prototyping at work

*Delves into the specifics of what types of projects paper prototyping is and isn't good for.
  

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Review: Paper Prototyping: The Fast and Easy Way to Design and Refine User Interfaces

User Review  - Falsedan - Goodreads

Practical, explains without evangelism. The explanations on how to avoid saying horribly offensive things to your external testers shows that the author's background is firmly technical. Read full review

Review: Paper Prototyping: The Fast and Easy Way to Design and Refine User Interfaces

User Review  - Maria Laura - Goodreads

cheap, efficient, useful and interesting interface design technique Read full review

Contents

Introduction
4
What Paper Prototyping Isnt?
10
Wireframes
11
Storyboards
12
Benefits of Paper Prototyping
13
The History of Paper Prototyping
14
Usefulness of Paper Prototyping
15
Audience for This Book
16
The Sportscaster
181
The Scientist
186
CoDiscovery TwoUser Testing
187
Benefits
188
Why I Choose CoDiscovery
189
Making TradeOffs
190
Other Common Testing Challenges
192
The User with an Agenda
193

Programming
17
Usability for Everyone
18
Terminology Used in This Book
19
Chapter Overview
21
Conducting a Usability Study with a Paper Prototype
22
Part IIIDeciding to Use Paper
23
No Bad Examples
24
Case Study
26
The MathWorks
28
The Team Had Questions
29
And Paper Prototyping Answered Them
30
Customers Are Happy
31
A Return to Flatland
33
Social Considerations
34
Six Years Later
35
Pricelinecom
36
Email Address
37
3Day ResponseNot
38
Probability and Pricing
39
Frequently Asked Questions
40
Findings
42
Jukebox Car Radio
43
Adding Texture
44
Successful Interface Successful Learning Experience
45
Historical Examples of Paper Prototyping
46
Postal Mail Sorting Machine
47
Summary
48
Thinking about Prototyping
50
Designing
51
Rendering
52
Effort to Render
53
How Good Should It Look?
54
Coding
55
Finding Technical Issues
57
Psychological Benefits for Users
58
More Creative Feedback
59
Effects on the Product Team
61
More Creativity
63
Multidisciplinary Teams Can Participate
64
Avoiding Miscommunication The Amelia Bedelia Problem
66
Opinion Wars
67
Summary
68
Making a Paper Prototype
70
Supplies I Dont Use
75
Software Application Backgrounds
76
Browser Backgrounds
77
SmallScreen Interfaces
79
How to Prototype Interface Widgets
81
Representing the Users Choices
84
HandDrawing versus Screen Shots
85
Simulating Interaction
86
Beyond the Computer ScreenIncorporating Other Elements
89
Hardware Devices
91
Human Actors
93
Documentation Help and Training
94
Summary
96
Process Conducting a Usability Study with Paper Prototype
98
Planning a Usability Study with a Paper Prototype
100
Overview of a Usability Study Using a Paper Prototype
101
People to Involve
103
Designer and Developer
104
Technical Expertise
105
A Note about the Graphic Designer
106
Discuss Risks and Concerns Finding the Rattlesnakes
107
Create a User Profile
109
Determine the Schedule
113
Estimating the Other Activities
115
User Recruitment
117
How Many Usability Studies?
119
It Gets Easier
120
Task Design
122
Has Appropriate Scope
123
Has a Clear End Point
124
Overview of the Task Creation Process
125
List User Goals
126
Functionality versus Goals
127
Prioritize Your Questions
129
Create a Task
130
Examples of Completed Task Templates
132
Number and Order the Tasks
137
Dropping and Reordering Tasks
138
Write Instructions for Users
139
Avoid Wording That Reveals the Method
140
Written Not Oral
141
Use Humor Carefully If At All
142
RealityCheck Your Tasks
143
I
144
Preparing the Prototype
146
Dont Forget the Data
147
Divide and Conquer
148
Parallel Design
149
Existing versus New Design?
150
HandDrawn versus Screen Shots?
152
Tips for HandDrawn Prototypes
153
Greeking and Simplification
155
Using Screen Shots
157
Separating Elements
158
How Much to PrototypeAnticipating Paths and Errors
159
Organizing the Prototype
160
Design Reviews
161
Internal Walkthroughs
163
How to Do a Walkthrough
164
This Isnt a Usability Test
165
Who Should Be the Computer
166
When and When Not to Redesign
167
The Final Walkthroughthe Usability Test Rehearsal
168
Pilot Tests
170
Introduction to Usability Test Facilitation
172
Facilitator Responsibilities
173
The Informed Consent Form
175
Payment for Users
177
Flight Attendant Sportscaster Scientist
178
The Flight Attendant
179
Unusually Nervous User
194
Mismatched Users
195
Usability Testing with a Paper Prototype
198
Videotaping
200
Reasons to Videotape
201
How to Videotape a Paper Prototype
202
Preparing Users
204
Upon Arrival
205
How the Computer Behaves
210
Wait for the Users
211
Facilitation a Paper Prototype Test
212
Ending the Test
214
Modifying the Prototype
215
Making Changes during a Test
216
Making Changes between Tests
218
Observers
222
Users Feel Respected and Listened To
223
The Facilitator Can Observe the Observers
224
There Are No Hidden Watchers
225
Concerns about InRoom Observers
226
Learning from Disaster
227
Who Shouldnt Be in the Room
229
Weighing Risks and Rewards
230
How to Explain the Rules to Observers
232
Observers Are People Too
234
Relaxing the Rules
235
Working up to InRoom Observers
236
Questions to Avoid
237
Questions That Belong in a Focus Group
238
Questions That Ask Users to Explain Their Cognitive Process
239
What Observers Should Do
240
Data Capturing Prioritizing and Communication
242
Observation Inference and Opinion
243
Taking Notes
245
Prioritizing the Issues
248
Affinity Diagram
249
Why a Group Method?
251
A Note about Granularity
252
Success Rates and Statistics
253
Communication and Documenting the Results
254
Top10 List
255
Walkthrough Video
256
Summary
257
Deciding Whether to Use Paper
258
What Paper Is and Isnt Good For
260
Four Dimensions of a Prototype
261
Comparing Prototyping Methods
263
Methods Dont Stand AloneWhat Are You Prototyping?
268
Which Dimensions Matters?
269
What Paper Prototype Will Likely Find Depth Issues
273
Content
274
DocumentationHelp
275
Brand
276
What Paper Prototypes Wont Find Interaction Issues
278
Long Documents and Lists
279
Keystroke or Mouse Errors
280
Mouse versus Keyboard Preference
281
Rollover and Cascading Menus
282
What Usability Testing Wont Find RealLife Situations
283
Summary
284
The Politics of Paper Prototyping
286
Validity
287
Case Studies
290
Does Paper Prototyping Find Real Problems?
291
Bias
293
Bad Tasks
294
Unrealistic Test Setting
296
Test Machine
298
Facilitator
299
Test Methodology
300
Observers
301
Bugs
302
And Yes the Paper Prototype Introduces Bias Too
303
Qualitative Analysis
306
Professionalism
311
Addressing Concerns about Professionalism
312
Resource Constraints
313
Wont It Result in More Work?
314
How Will This Affect Our Development Process?
315
We Can Prototype Just as Well with _______
316
Tips for Dealing with Skeptics
318
When to Use Paper
320
Ready Fire Aim
321
Accidental Pornography
322
Paper Prototype War Stories
323
Location of Development Team and Users
324
Rescheduling Costs
325
Development Content
326
Usability Testing versus Development
327
Test EnvironmentHardware and Facility
328
Tasks Data and Test Scenarios
329
Installation and Configuration Tasks
330
UserDefined Tasks
331
Scope of Planned Changes
332
Hybrid Paper + Software Testing
335
Broadening the Focus
338
Examples of UserCentered Design
340
Contextual Interviewing
341
Usability Testing of Paper Prototypes
342
Usability Nights
343
IBM
344
PowerPoint Presentations
346
Dictaphone
347
Wood Blocks and Stickers
348
FomeCor Mockups
350
Looking Forward Looking Back
351
Final Thoughts
354
References
356
Other Papers and Articles
358
Web Sites
360
Index
362
Copyright

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About the author (2003)

Carolyn Snyder is an internationally recognized usability consultant with 10 years of experience in usability and another 10 as a software engineer and project manager. She has taught usability testing and paper prototyping to development teams at dozens of companies. She is co-author of Web Site Usability: A Designer's Guide and E-Commerce User Experience.

Bibliographic information