m n COPYRIGHT 1925, BY INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHERS CO., ISC. Second Printing, 1926 Tkird Printing, 1928 IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMXBICA This book is composed ttd prtoted by Union Labor COJNTEJNTS INTRODUCTION AOI THE PRACTICAL IMPORTANCE OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES ix a. The Social Sciences and the Demands of the Struggle of the Working Class b. The Bourgeoisie and the Social Sci ences c. The Class Character of the Social Sciences d. Why is Proletarian Science superior to Bourgeois Science e. The Various Social Sciences and Sociology f, The Theory of Historical Materialism as a Marxian Sociology. CHAPTER ONE CAUSE AND PURPOSE IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES CAUSATION AND TELEOLOGY 19 a. The Uniformity of Phenomena in General and of Social Phenomena in Particular b. The Nature of Causation Formulation of the Question c. Teleology and Objections to Teleology Immanent Teleology d. Teleology in the Social Sciences e. Causality and Teleology Scientific Explanations are Causal Explanations. CHAPTER Two DETERMINISM AND INDETERMINISM NECESSITY AND FREE WILL 33 a. The Question of Freedom or Lack of Freedom of the Indi vidual Will b. The Resultant of the Individual WiUs in Unorganized Society c. The Collectively Organized Will the Resultant of Individual Wills inOrganizedCommunist Sbciety d. Accidentalism in General e. Historical Ac cident f Historical Necessity g Are the Social Sciences Possible Is Prediction Possible in this Fiddf ti CONTENTS CHAPTER THREE DIALECTIC MATERIALISM 53 a. Materialism and Idealism in Philosophy the Problem of the Objective b. The Materialist Attitude in the Social Sci ences c The Dynamic Point of View and the Relation between Phenomena d. The Historical Interpretation of the SocialSciences e. The Use of Contradictions in the Historical Process f . The Theory of Cataclysmic Changes and the Theory of Revolutionary Transformations in the Social Sciences. CHAPTER FOUR SOCIETY 84 a. Concept of Aggregates Logical and Real Aggregates b. Society as a Real Aggregate or a System c. The Char acter of the Social Relations d. Society and Personality Precedence of Society over the Individual e. Societies in Process of Formation. CHAPTER FIVE THE EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN SOCIETY AND NATURE 104 a. Nature as the Environment of Society b. Relations between Society and Nature The Process of Production and Re production c. The Productive Forces The Productive Forces as an Indicator of the Relations between Society and Nature d. The Equilibrium between Nature and Society its Disturbances and Readjustments e. The Pro ductive Forces as the Point of Departure in Sociological Analysis. CHAPTER Six THE EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN THE ELEMENTS OF SOCIETY 130 a. Connection between the Various Social Phenomena Formu lation of the Question b Things, Persons, Ideas c. Social Technology and the Economic Structure of Society d. The Outlines of the Superstructure e. Social Psychology CONTENTS tfi and Social Ideology f, The Ideological Processes con sidered as Differentiated Labor g. The Significance of the Superstructures h. The Formative Principles of Social Life i. Types of Economic Structure Types of Various Societies j, The Contradictory Character of Evolution External and Internal Equilibrium of Society. CHAPTER SEVEN DISTURBANCE AND READJUSTMENT OF SOCIAL EQUILIBRIUM 242 a. The Process of Social Changes and the Productive Forces, b, The Productive Forces and the Social-Economic Struc ture c. TheRevolution and its Phases d. Cause and Effect in the Transition Period Cause and Effect in Periods of Decline e. The Evolution of the Productive Forces and the Materialization of Social Phenomena Accumulation of Civilization f. The Process of Repro duction of Social Life as a Whole. CHAPTER EIGHT T E CLASSES AND THE CLASS STRUGGLE . ... 276 a. Class, Caste, Vocation b. Class Interest c. Class Psychol ogy and Class Ideology d. The Class in itself and the Class for itself e. Forms of a Relative Solidarity of Interests f. Class Struggle and Class Peace g...
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