## Practical Limits for Balsa Impact Limiters |

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80 Crushed cone 85 pounds absorption capacity absorption efficiency allowable impact velocity aluminum skin amount of balsa analysis presented Balsa absorption balsa crushed balsa density balsa efficiency balsa impact limiters balsa limiters balsa weight bottoming effect Bresie Manned Spacecraft combined with equation cone half angle crushed balsa volume Crushed cone half crushed volume crushing fraction crushing stress deg Figure Don Bresie energy absorption equation 20 equations presented factor of safety figures 7(a ft/sec grain half angle Figure hard-landed experimental packages higher velocities impact limiter material impact shock impact velocity limits Jet Propulsion Laboratory Kinetic energy lb/ft LIMITS FOR BALSA lunar maximum allowable impact maximum velocity NASA payload sphere payload weight practical impact velocity PRACTICAL LIMITS radians reasonable values shock loading shown in figure skin thickness skin weight Spacecraft Center spherical balsa spherical impact limiters Styrofoam total balsa volume total package weight Total weight velocity of 221 volume Crushed