National Schools of Singing: English, French, German, and Italian Techniques of Singing Revisited

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Scarecrow Press, Jan 1, 1997 - Music - 237 pages
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In 1977, Scarecrow Press published Richard Miller's study, English, French, German and Italian Techniques of Singing: A Study in National Tonal Preferences and How They Relate to Functional Efficiency. He compared the historic and then current techniques practiced in the four major Western European schools of vocalism and evaluated technical maneuvers found within each.Recent years have placed greater demands on the vocal talents of professional singers with the growth of performance spaces, the emergence of the stage director, louder orchestral sound, and even the infusion of pop culture sounds into traditional music. As "world culture" continues to expand, and vocal talent becomes more homogenous, the need for continued recognition of lingering national and regional vocal training techniques becomes more important for the singer's quest to develop a certain style. This update of Miller's original study incorporates these new concerns with a continued investigation into which techniques within the national schools are common to them all and which idiosyncratic regional tendencies remain.
  

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Contents

The Attack
1
Garcia and Three Views on Attack
2
The German School
4
The French and Italian Schools
5
The English School
6
The Mechanics of Breath Management
7
The Thoracic Cage
8
The Intercostal Muscles
9
The English School
97
Vocal Registration and National Attitudes
98
Voce di Petto
102
Falsetto
104
Voce Finta
116
Voce di Testa
117
Bell Register
118
Male and Female Register Parallelisms
119

Muscles of the Abdomen
12
Dorsal and Other Accessory Respiratory Muscles
14
Diaphragmatic Control
19
Breath Management Techniques in the German School
21
Low Dorsal Breathing
22
GlutealPelvic Contraction Low Trunk Support
24
Low Diaphragmatic Fixation
26
Epigastric Distention Distended Abdominal Breathing
27
Stauprinzip Breath Damming
28
Induced Exhalation Delayed Inhalation
29
Minimal Breath System
30
Breath Management Techniques in the English School
32
Fixed Diaphragmatic Breathing
35
Elevated Chest and Contracted Abdomen
36
Costal Arrest
37
Breath Management Techniques in the French and Italian Schools
39
The Italian School
41
Techniques of Vowel Formation in Singing
45
The German School
46
Buccal Rounding
47
Equalization of Vowel Sounds
48
Buccal Posture
49
The English School
50
The Preferred Vowel
52
The Italian School
54
Relationship of Speech and Song
55
Vocalizing Vowels in the Italian School
56
Techniques of Resonance in Singing
58
The Buccopharyngeal Muscular System
60
The German School
65
Stimmbildung
67
Kopfstimme
69
The French School
75
Elevated Tongue
76
The English School
77
Gola Aperta The Open Throat
78
Impostazione and Appoggio
79
Timbre Terminology within the Italian School
80
Laryngeal Positioning
83
The Depressed Larynx
84
The Stabilized Larynx
91
Vibrato and National Tendencies
92
The Italian School
95
The French School
96
Summary of Register Categories
122
Registration Events and Voice Categorization
125
Approximate Passaggi in Male Voices
126
Approximate Passaggi in Female Voices
127
Chest Mixture and Head in the Female Voice
129
Vowel Modification
134
The Italian School
135
The French School
136
The English School
137
The Even Scale
138
The Soprano Voice
140
The Italian School
142
The French School
144
The English School
145
The Mezzo and Contralto Voices
149
The French School
150
The Italian School
151
The English School
152
The Tenor Voice
153
The Italian School
154
The German School
157
The English School
160
The Baritone and Bass Voices
163
The French School
165
The German School
166
The Italian School
168
The English School
169
The Role of Language in National Pedagogies
171
Italian as a Language for Singing
172
French as a Language for Singing
176
German as a Language for Singing
180
English as a Language for Singing
182
Singing Foreign Languages
185
National Temperament and Vocal Ideals
187
International Tonal Ideals
194
The North American Singer and the National Schools
200
Notes
206
Institutions Visited in Connection with This Study
211
IPA Symbols Used in This Volume
213
Bibliography
215
Index
229
About the Author
237
Copyright

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About the author (1997)

Known internationally for master classes and institutes in systemic vocal techniques and artistic interpretation, Richard Miller is Professor of Singing and Director of the Otto B. Schoepfle Vocal Arts Center, Oberlin Conservatory of Music, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. He also serves as adjunct staff member in the department of Otolaryngology and Communicative Disorders, Cleveland Clinic, is an Associate of Collegium Medicorum Theatri, and a member of the American Academy of Teachers of Singing.

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