Climate Change & Naval War: A Scientific Assessment (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Trafford Publishing, 2005 - Science - 344 pages
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The book seeks to demonstrate that the industrialized world contributed to at least two significant climatic changes during the 20th century, viz. WWI and WWII. This became particularly obvious when an arctic winter befell Northern Europe only four months after World War II had started, ending a pronounced temperature rise all over the Northern Hemisphere which had started with the end of WWI in 1918.

The 'Big Warming' in 1918 started at the Norwegian Island Spitsbergen high in the North bordering the Arctic Sea. Not far away a devastation naval war had been deterred for four years. Winters since 1918 were the warmest for several hundred years. The expression 'Greening of Greenland' and 'Warming of Europe' established. Suddenly, exactly two decades after WWI the trend was reversed. Without any geophysical event, e.g. volcano, earthquake, or meteorite Northern Europe plunged to Ice Age conditions in winter 1939/40. For North Germany it was the coldest winter for 110 years. Not nature had caused weather to change the course but huge naval armadas going into action since September 1st 1939.

Two further arctic winters followed. Each is a clear demonstration of naval impact on North and Baltic Sea heat budget usually sustaining moderate regional winters. After German invasion of Norway followed a record winter for South Norway 1940/41. Winter 1941/42 became a record winter for Stockholm after Germans mobilised about hundred naval vessels; viz. 10 large mine layers, 28 torpedo boats, 2-3 dozen minesweepers and many hundred bomber and fighter airplanes to attack Russia over six long months in the Baltic Sea, while the Russian operated with six big war ships, 21 destroyers, 65 submarines, six mine layers, 48 torpedo cutters and 700 air planes. Arctic conditions all over Northern Europe were the prompt result.

With commencement of global naval war since Pearl Harbour had been attacked on 7th December 1941, huge sea areas in all oceans were churned and turned up side down for almost four years. The Allies completed over 300.000 Atlantic voyages and lost several thousand ships. 800 German U-boats sunk. Some hundred thousand aerial bombs, and depth charges, and sea mines exploded above or down to 200 meters below the sea surface. A global cooling for four decades was the immediate and lasting result until 1980. From this date on the WWII impact may have reversed, resuming and accelerating the pre-WWII warming trend.

With the end of the Little Ice Age in 19th century, the use of the oceans no longer remained 'neutral'. Day by day huge water masses are 'turned about'. What it means in climatic terms is demonstrated by explaining the climatic impact of the war at sea. Understanding the global warming trend since 1880 primarily means understanding the structure, conditions and changes of the oceans and seas.


  

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Contents

A Introduction
1
B Cooling of Europe
7
West Wind Drift lost Europe cut off 2_12
23
War at sea 1939 Facts and events 2_13
37
Sea Mines September December 1939 2_14
45
Bombs and depth charges at sea 2_15
59
Cooling of North Sea 1939 2_16
69
Baltic Sea paved way for extreme winter 2_17
87
Winter weather Cold axis 194142 3_22
181
Stockholms arctic winter of 1942 3_23
193
Three year ice package 19391942 3_31
199
Sea war and climate change
211
Ocean System affected 4_12
225
Extreme winter of 194647 in Europe 4_21
245
E Severe Warming 1918
251
Spitsbergen heats up Big Warming 1918 5_12
263

Cyclones and shells War at sea events 2_21
97
Resultant Rain due to War 1939 2_31
107
USA winter weather 193940 caused by war 2_32
117
War in China 1939 2_33
123
Turkey Earth Quake 27 December 1939 2_51
141
Mediterranean Strange weather winter 193940 2_52
149
Three Europe winter 1939 42
153
Naval activities in Baltic Sea 1941 3_21
173
WWI warms Spitsbergen? 5_13
275
Sea Mines Warfare 1914 1918 5_14
285
Warming of Europe Greening of Greenland 5_15
291
F Climate changes twice
303
Epilogue Article from 1994
311
G References
313
Copyright

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Page 5 - Climate change' means a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. 3. "Climate system" means the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions.

About the author (2005)

As trained seaman and master mariner the author was shipmaster before he became lawyer and doctor of law in the 1970s and international consultant since the 1980s. His previous book "Bernaerts' Guide to the Law of the Sea - The 1982 United Nations Convention" was published 1988 in Couldsdon/England.

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