Railway economy: use of counter-pressure steam in the locomotive engine as a brake, tr. by L.D.B. Gordon (Google eBook)

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1869
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Page 28 - CALORIE is the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Centigrade.
Page 28 - The quantity of heat which corresponds to an interval of one degree of Fahrenheit's scale in the temperature of one pound of pure liquid water, at and near its temperature of greatest density (39'l Fahrenheit).
Page 26 - ... proved sufficient to render the counter-pressure steam applicable for stopping and shunting in stations, and for moderating the speed in the descent of goods trains on gradients of one in 260. Indeed, the injection of steam alone has been effectually applied to light trains on a short incline of one in 22. " But experience soon showed that the only general and complete solution of the question is found in the injection of water. To complete the absorption of the heat produced by the compression...
Page 24 - ... instead of the shorter ones in general use, and he will at once perceive the advantage of using cylindrical wheels." THE USE OF COUNTER-PRESSURE STEAM IN THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE AS A BRAKE. ML De Chatelier gives the history of the improvement as follows : " About the middle of 1865, when first I thought of organizing a. system of experiments for removing the difficulties of reversing the steam, I began by trying whether it would be possible to work the engine for any considerable time by means...
Page 35 - ... cylinders during the period of aspiration, and that it served as the vehicle for the water which was shut in with it, behind the piston, at the moment the period of cushioning and forcing back commenced. It was supposed that the water led from the boiler was applied directly to the absorption of heat. " I have shown that the water is converted into steam from the moment that it enters the cylinder, even during the period of aspiration, and the conclusion is that not only is it not required to...
Page 28 - The thermal unit employed in Britain is " The quantity of heat which corresponds to an interval of one degree of Fahrenheit's scale in the temperature of one pound of pure liquid water, at and near its temperature of greatest density (39.
Page 35 - The new system of reversing steam has been, until recently, limited to the use of a mixture of steam and water. The engineers to whom I had entrusted the task of making the first trials followed my instructions with some apprehension, endeavoring as much as possible to avoid the injection of water into the cylinders. The result has been that, even now, in Spain, where these first trials were made, the use of counter-pressure steam has...
Page 25 - I pointed out three combinations to be experimented on in succession, according to the greater or less difficulty found in completely cooling the cylinders. " 1st. Injection of steam mixed with air. " 2d. Injection of steam in sufficient excess to prevent the entrance of air. " 3d. Injection of water, instead of steam. " At first I supposed that the steam would carry along with it a sufficient quantity of water to absorb the heat produced, and that it...

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