Introduction to microlithography
Updated and expanded! Reviews the theory, materials, and processes that are used in the lithographic process. Opens with a brief historical introduction to the advances in microlithography. Discusses four major topics: the physics of the lithographic process, organic resist materials, resist processing, and plasma etching. Designed as a tutorial for researchers with no experience in the field, as well as those experienced in microlithography. Will also prove invaluable to those already involved in microlithography. Includes numerous references for more detailed reading on specific aspects of microlithography.
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Organic Resist Materials
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absorbed acid anisotropic atoms backscattered baking beam chemically amplified chemistry circuit coherence contamination cross-linking deep-UV defects density device diffraction pattern dose dry etching e-beam effect electron electron-beam emission energy entrance pupil equation etch rate etchant example exposed film thickness Fourier Fraunhofer diffraction function glow discharge increase Instrum integrated circuit ion bombardment laser lens line width lithography mask models molecular weight molecules negative resist novolac optical oxide parameters permission from reference Photo-Opt photolithography photoresist planarizing layer plasma etching plasma reactor PMMA polymer potential prebaking Proc produce projection radiation reaction reactive reactive ion etching resin resist film resist material resist systems resolution scanning scattering ScL TechnoL semiconductor sheath shown in Figure silicon slit Solid State TechnoL solubility solvent spatial frequency species spin-coating step substrate surface techniques temperature thermal tion unexposed wafer wavelength X-ray X-ray lithography