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Page 116 - THE ART OF SOAP-MAKING. A Practical Handbook of the Manufacture of Hard and Soft Soaps, Toilet Soaps, &c. Including many New Processes, and a Chapter on the Recovery of Glycerine from Waste Leys. By ALEXANDER WATT.
Page 45 - ... material. The interiors of the cells so built up are in communication directly with each other, or with a common channel, for the introduction of the matter operated upon, and as nothing introduced into the cells can find an exit without passing through the cloth, the solid matter fills up their interior, the liquid leaving by the drainage surfaces. The cells of the machine are subjected to pressure, which increases as the operation goes on.
Page 45 - The Society of Chemical Industry," London, by Mr. CC Hutchinson, a member of the firm of SH Johnson & Co. "The filter press consists of a number of narrow cells held in a suitable frame, the interior faces being provided with appropriate drainage surfaces communicating with an outlet, and covered by a filtering medium, generally cloth or paper.
Page 278 - The following considerations will show the reasons for this : — When two lights are opposed to each other in a horizontal direction, and a vertical screen is placed between them, it is evident that the rays impinging thereon must do so in accordance with the well-known law of the squares of the distance. If the actual distance of one of the lights from the screen remains constant while travelling through the circumference of a circle whose centre is coincident with the centre of the disc, the number...
Page 281 - But in the case of flat-flame burners, it is necessary that this series should be made in duplicate, one with the flame flat, or at right angles to the bar of the Photometer, and one with the flame placed with its edge to the bar. An extensive series of experiments on this point has...
Page 45 - ... account of the expense they entail both for fuel and labor; (2) the pollution of the neighborhood of the works by offensive odors invariably given off. The removal of the water by evaporation, as will be apparent, is infinitely more complex than the simple evaporation of water in an ordinary boiler, in which, under ordinary circumstances, good fuel will evaporate from 7 to 9 times its own weight of water. So high an evaporative efficiency is impossible with sludge, and it is more than probable...
Page 42 - Where the water is foul [that is, not purified by precipitation] I can speak positively to it, from repeated observation in different places, that the odour, particularly at night, and particularly upon still damp evenings in autumn, is very sickly indeed, and that in all these cases a great deal of disease prevails.
Page 130 - Myriads of minute worms were developed in the animal charcoal, and passed out with the water, when these filters were used for Thames water, and when the charcoal was not renewed at sufficiently short intervals. The property which animal charcoal possesses in a high degree, of favoring the growth of the low forms of organic life, is a serious drawback to its use as a filtering medium for potable waters.
Page 48 - HP actual ) is about £1,000. Thirty tons of wet sludge can be easily pressed into cakes, containing 50 per cent, of moisture, equalling six tons, or one-fifth of the original bulk, consisting of 5 charges from each machine of 12 cwt.
Page 48 - The labor required is about two-thirds of the time of two men. The cost of the operation, determined from actual work extending over two years at Coventry, amounts, with all expenses included, to sixpence per ton of wet sludge, or halfa-crown per ton of pressed cake, and on a larger scale this expense will be somewhat less.