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concrete as a material
historical development of concrete
19 other sections not shown
admixtures aggregate particles air content air-entraining American Concrete Institute amount applied ASTM batch bond calcium hydroxide calcium silicate capillary pores cause cement content cement paste Chapter chemical coarse aggregate compacted composition compounds compressive strength concrete mix concrete strength corrosion cracking creep curve cylinders depends determined drying shrinkage durability effect elastic modulus entrained ettringite expansion factors failure fibers flexural formwork fracture fresh concrete grading gypsum heat hydration products increase lightweight concretes loading lower materials maximum measure method mix design modulus of elasticity moisture content mortar normal-weight occur polymer porosity portland cement pozzolan problems reaction reduce reinforcing resistance shear shown in Figure sieve silica slump specific gravity specimen standard steel strain strength of concrete stress stress-strain curve structure sulfate attack surface Table temperature tensile strength tensile stresses thermal Type unit weight vibration volume water content wlc ratio workability