Historical Dictionary of Syria
This Second Edition gives the reader easy access to the history and contemporary situation of one of the world's ancient civilizations. The heart of the work is more than 350 entries on the most influential political figures and events, religious groups and movements, economic sectors, social institutions, and cultural facets. The second edition includes nearly 100 entirely new entries and updates on 43 entries from the first edition. An important difference between the two editions is the inclusion of many more entries on social institutions, such as the family and coffeehouses, cultural aspects, such as art, architecture, cinema, literature, music, and theater, and economic facets, such as inflation, corruption, the public sector, and efforts at reform. There is also expanded coverage on Syria's political dynamics, with entries on human rights, civil society, and security forces. The only specific reference work in English, this new edition addresses profound changes in Syria's domestic and regional circumstances. The domestic political scene witnessed a major transition with the passing of Syria's ruler for 30 years, Hafiz al-Asad, and the unexpectedly smooth succession of his son Bashar as new president in 2000. The regional situation has changed even more since the first edition came out in 1996. Peace talks with Israel collapsed in 2000 and three years later the United States invaded Iraq, beginning an occupation of Syria's neighbor for an indeterminate period, with incalculable consequences. In addition to the A to Z dictionary, the second edition contains a chronology that presents fairly general information on early centuries and becomes quite detailed for the most recent years. The bibliography also reflects significant changes in research on Syria. Not only does the bibliographical essay highlight important new monographs, it introduces the reader to credible Internet resources for guides to travel and popular culture as well as news and statistical data at major international organizations'
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20th century Abbasid Adib al-Shishakli Aflaq agricultural al-Din Alawi Aleppo army Asad Asad's authority Ayyubid Ba'th Party Ba'th Party regime Ba'thist Baghdad Bashar al-Asad became bedouin Beirut Byzantine caliphate Christians coup Damascus domination dynasty early economic Egypt Egyptian elections established Euphrates faction Fatimid Faysal February forces France French Mandate Golan Heights governor Hafiz al-Asad Hama Homs Husayn independence Iran Iraq Iraqi Islamic Isma'ili Israel Israeli Jabal Druze Jazira Jordan July June Kurdish land Latakia leaders Lebanese Lebanon Mamluk Military Committee movement Muhammad Muslim Muslim Brothers National Bloc National Party neo-Ba'th Nizari northern Syria October officers Ottoman Empire Palestine Palestinian party's People's Party percent political population President prime minister province reform region relations religious revolt River rule rulers Saudi Arabia sector Shi'i Soviet Sultan Sunni Syria Syrian government trade treaty troops Turkey Turkish Umayyad Union United Arab Republic United Nations urban