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Synchronic variation and diachronic change 1 Awareness of linguistic change
Change inevitable at all levels of linguistic organisation
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adjectives already American English areas back vowel become beginning borrowing British English centuries clause common complex compounds consonant contrast corresponding dependent clauses dialects diphthong distinction divided usage earlier early element England established evidence examples extent factors final formation French front vowel function genitive Germanic Germanic languages grammatical grammatical gender graphemes homophones important inflections Jespersen kind language late 14c later Latin lengthening less lexical linguistic loans loanwords long vowel loss meaning modern movement native normal Northumbria nouns older origin participle past pattern period periphrastic phoneme phonological plural position prefix present pronoun pronunciation realisation recent recorded relative Scandinavian sense sentences sequence settlement singular sound speakers speech spelling standard standard language stress strong verbs structure suffixes survived syllables tendency trace tradition unstressed syllables variation varieties of English vocabulary weak form words writing written