Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution: Natural History and Evolution

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Springer Science & Business Media, 1994 - Science - 511 pages
3 Reviews
Molecular approaches have opened new windows on a host of ecological and evolutionary disciplines, ranging from population genetics and behavioral ecology to conservation biology and systematics.
Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution summarizes the multi-faceted discoveries about organisms in nature that have stemmed from analyses of genetic markers provided by polymorphic proteins and DNAs. The first part of the book introduces rationales for the use of molecular markers, provides a history of molecular phylogenetics, and describes a wide variety of laboratory methods and interpretative tools in the field. The second and major portion of the book provides a cornucopia of biological applications for molecular markers, organized along a scale from micro-evolutionary topics (such as forensics, parentage, kinship, population structure, and intra-specific phylogeny) to macro-evolutionary themes (including species relationships and the deeper phylogenetic structure in the tree of life). Unlike most prior books in molecular evolution, the focus is on organismal natural history and evolution, with the macromolecules being the means rather than the ends of scientific inquiry. Written as an intellectual stimulus for the advanced undergraduate, graduate student, or the practicing biologist desiring a wellspring of research ideas at the interface of molecular and organismal biology, this book presents material in a manner that is both technically straightforward, yet rich with concepts and with empirical examples from the world of nature.
  

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This version is a great update to Avise's original Molecular Markers, Natural History, and Evolution. This is a must have for any scientist that needs a reference for any markers technique or is teaching a course in the like. ... Read full review

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对做分子进化研究有纪念价值的老书

Contents

Introduction
3
WHY EMPLOY MOLECULAR GENETIC MARKERS?
5
Molecular Methods Open the Entire Biological World for Genetic Scrutiny
6
Molecular Data Can Distinguish Homology from Analogy
8
Molecular Data Provide Common Yardsticks for Measuring Divergence
9
Molecular Approaches Facilitate Mechanistic Appraisals of Evolution
11
Molecular Approaches are Challenging and Exciting
12
WHY NOT EMPLOY MOLECULAR GENETIC MARKERS?
15
Marine Gametes and Larvae
215
Direct Estimates of Dispersal Distances
221
Vagility Philopatry and Dispersal Scale
222
Physical Dispersal Barriers
223
Philopatry to Natal Site
224
Genderbiased Dispersal and Gene Flow
227
Nonneutrality of Some Molecular Markers
230
Historical Demographic Events
232

History of Molecular Phylogenetics
16
DEBATES AND DIVERSIONS FROM MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS
17
Molecular Input to the Debate
20
Research Preoccupations of the ProteinElectrophoretic Revolution
22
Empirical Approaches to the VariabilityFitness Conundrum
23
Genetic Theory and the NeutralistSelectionist Debate
26
Systematic Philosophy and the PheneticCladistic Debate
34
Phylogenetic Data and the MoleculeMorphology Debate
39
MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS
40
SUMMARY
43
Molecular Tools
44
Data
46
Protein Electrophoresis
47
Data
49
DNA ASSAYS
53
Data
55
Restriction Analyses
57
Animal Mitochondrial DNA
60
Plant Mitochondrial and Chloroplast DNA
68
Singlecopy Nuclear DNA
69
Ribosomal RNA Genes and other Middlerepetitive Gene Families
75
Minisatellite Sequences and DNA Fingerprinting
78
DNA Sequencing and the Polymerase Chain Reaction
82
Data
87
REFERENCES TO LABORATORY PROTOCOLS
90
SUMMARY
91
Interpretive Tools
92
Protein Versus DNA Information
93
Detached versus Connective Information
97
Utility of Data Along the Phylogenetic Hierarchy
98
MOLECULAR CLOCKS
100
Clock Calibrations and Controversies
103
Absolute and Relative Rate Comparisons
106
Closing Thoughts About Molecular Clocks
108
PROCEDURES FOR PHYLOGENY RECONSTRUCTION
109
Distance Approaches
111
FitchMargoliash Method
113
NeighborJoining Method
114
Distance Wagner Method
115
Comparison of Distance Matrix Methods
119
CharacterState Approaches
120
Hennigian Cladistics
121
Maximum Parsimony
122
Conclusions About Phylogenetic Procedures
124
GENE TREES VERSUS SPECIES TREES
126
SUMMARY
138
Applications
139
Individuality and Parentage
141
Ramets and Genets
147
Spatial Distributions of Clones
150
Ages of Clones
155
Genetic Mosaics
159
Clonal Reproduction in Microorganisms
160
Gender Determination
167
PARENTAGE
168
Paternity Analysis
172
Paternity in Plants
177
Sperm and Pollen Competition Precedence
182
Maternity Analysis
185
SUMMARY
188
Kinship and Intraspecific Phylogeny
190
Eusocial Colonies
194
Noneusocial Colonies and Groups
199
Kin Recognition
203
GEOGRAPHIC POPULATION STRUCTURE AND GENE FLOW
204
Autogamous Mating Systems
210
Gametic and Zygotic Dispersal
213
PHYLOGEOGRAPHY
233
Case Histories
236
Interbrood Switching in Periodical Cicadas
237
Natural Selection and Biogeographic History in the Killifish
238
Genealogical Concordance and the Sharptailed Sparrow
241
Phylogeography of a Regional Fauna
242
General Conclusions About Intraspecific Phytogeography
246
MICROTEMPORAL PHYLOGENY
248
SUMMARY
250
Speciation and Hybridization
252
THE SPECIATION PROCESS
257
Molecular Evidence
261
Do Speciations Entail Severe Population Bottlenecks?
264
Are Speciation Rates and Divergence Rates Correlated?
267
Can Speciation Occur Sympatrically?
269
Host or HabitatSwitching in Insects
272
Can Related Species Be Diagnosed Reliably?
274
Should a Phylogenetic Species Concept Replace the BSC?
278
HYBRIDIZATION AND INTROGRESSION
280
Case History Involving Treefrogs
284
Hybrid Zone Asymmetries
287
Haldanes Rule
289
Differential Mating Behaviors
291
Differential Gametic Exchange
293
Reticulate Evolution Evidenced by cpDNA Phylogenies
295
Speciation by Hybridization
297
Origins of Unisexual Biotypes
299
SUMMARY
305
Species Phylogenies and Macroevolution
306
RATIONALES FOR PHYLOGENY ESTIMATION
307
Anatomical Features
308
Behavioral Physiological and Life History Features
315
Biogeographic Assessment
321
Common Ancestry Versus Convergence
326
Recent Islands Ancient Inhabitants
328
Academic Pursuit of Genealogical Roots
329
SPECIAL APPROACHES TO PHYLOGENY ESTIMATION
331
Mitochondrial DNA and the Higher Systematics of Animals
334
mtDNA Sequences
336
Chloroplast DNA and the Higher Systematics of Plants
337
cpDNA Restriction Sites and Sequences
339
Slowly Evolving Gene Sequences and Deep Phytogenetic Branches
341
PROSPECTUS FOR A GLOBAL PHYLOGENY
350
SPECIAL TOPICS IN MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS
352
Phylogeny of Retroviruses and Transposable Elements
354
Molecular Paleontology
356
SUMMARY
359
Conservation Genetics
361
ISSUES OF HETEROZYGOSITY
362
Does Reduced Molecular Heterozygosity Matter?
366
ISSUES OF PHYLOGENY
370
Parentage and Kinship
371
Population Structure and Intraspecific Phytogeny
372
Genetic Partitions Within Rare and Threatened Species
373
Stock Identification
375
Conclusions About Intraspecific Phylogeography
380
Speciation and Conservation Biology
382
Molecular Forensics and Law Enforcement
386
Hybridization and Introgression
388
Legal Issues
391
Species Phytogenies and Macroevolution
393
SUMMARY
396
CONCLUSION
397
Literature Cited
399
Index to Taxonomic Genera
501
General Index
507
Copyright

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Page 493 - McClelland, M. (1991). Polymorphisms generated by arbitrarily primed PCR in the mouse: application to strain identification and genetic mapping. Nucleic Acids Res. 19: 303-306.

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About the author (1994)

John C. Avise is a Distinguished Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of California, Irvine.

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