The Logic of Metaphor: Analogous Parts of Possible Worlds

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 31, 2001 - Computers - 254 pages
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1. Metaphors and Logic Metaphors are among the most vigorous offspring of the creative mind; but their vitality springs from the fact that they are logical organisms in the ecology of l- guage. I aim to use logical techniques to analyze the meanings of metaphors. My goal here is to show how contemporary formal semantics can be extended to handle metaphorical utterances. What distinguishes this work is that it focuses intensely on the logical aspects of metaphors. I stress the role of logic in the generation and int- pretation of metaphors. While I don't presuppose any formal training in logic, some familiarity with philosophical logic (the propositional calculus and the predicate c- culus) is helpful. Since my theory makes great use of the notion of structure, I refer to it as the structural theory of m etaphor (STM). STM is a semant ic theory of m etaphor : if STM is correct, then metaphors are cognitively meaningful and are n- trivially logically linked with truth. I aim to extend possible worlds semantics to handle metaphors. I'll argue that some sentences in natural languages like English have multiple meanings: "Juliet is the sun" has (at least) two meanings: the literal meaning "(Juliet is the sunkIT" and the metaphorical meaning "(Juliet is the sun)MET". Each meaning is a function from (possible) worlds to truth-values. I deny that these functions are identical; I deny that the metaphorical function is necessarily false or necessarily true.
  

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
2 Metaphor and Possible Worlds Semantics
2
3 Analogical Counterparts
5
4 TheoryConstitutive Metaphors
8
5 Analyzing Metaphors
12
6 Philosophical Application of the Computer
18
SAMPLE METAPHORICAL TEXTS
22
ANALOGICAL INFERENCES TO EXISTENCE
24
ANALOGICAL TRANSFERENCE
115
2 Analogical Transference
116
3 Subsymbolic Analogical Transference
118
4 An Extended Example of Analogical Transference
119
5 Rules for Analogical Transference
121
6 Analogical Transference and Induction
126
7 Perfect Analogies
130
8 SelfMirroring Universes
131

LANGUAGE
27
3 The Grammar of Metaphor
30
4 Propositions
36
5 Propositions as Networks
41
6 Conclusion
45
SEMANTICS
50
CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURES
59
3 The Taxonomic Hierarchy of Types
60
4 The Mereological Hierarchy of Types
61
5 Taxonomic Hierarchy of Processes
62
6 Contrastive Structures
63
7 Symmetries in Networks
65
8 Rules and Lexical Entailments
66
9 Conceptual Fields
67
10 Conclusion
70
SAMPLE DESCRIPTIONS
74
ANALOGY
81
2 Towards a Formal Theory of Analogy
82
3 The Stages of Analogical Inference
84
5 Analog Retrieval by Constraint Satisfaction
85
6 The Access Phase in NETMET
89
7 Analogical Mapping
93
8 Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction
95
9 Difficulties with Proportional Analogy
99
10 Rules for Analogical Mapping
100
11 Conclusion
108
9 Conclusion
134
EXAMPLES OF TRANSFERENCE
137
METAPHORICAL COMMUNICATION
141
2 Rules for Generating Metaphors
142
3 From Metaphors to Analogies
147
4 Conclusion
158
ANALOGY AND TRUTH
161
3 Logical Paraphrases for Metaphors
164
4 Rules for Assigning TruthValues to Metaphors
167
5 Metaphorical Identity is Relative Indiscernibility
174
6 Conclusion
178
INTENSIONS FOR METAPHORS
180
METAPHOR AND INFERENCE
183
3 Metaphor Justification
188
4 Metaphor Interpretation
196
5 Conclusion
207
LEXICAL MEANINGS
209
3 Metaphors Based on Perfect Analogies
213
4 Inference to the Best Definition
216
5 Informative TruthConditions
220
6 Metaphors Based on Imperfect Analogies
223
7 Conclusion
225
CONCLUSION
227
References
231
INDEX
249
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