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What Are Bureaus and Who Are Bureaucrats?
Bureaucracy Is Here to Stay
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actions activities advocates agency alternatives analysis basic behavior patterns benefits biases budget bureau members bureaucratic by-passing cause Chapter cials climbers communications conflict conservers coordination costs create decisionmaking decisions develop distortion effects environment evaluation example existing external factors formal rules goal consensus Gordon Tullock greater H. A. Simon Hence hierarchy ideology important incentive increase indoctrination influence innovation interest involved large organizations leakage Lewis Coser lower-level loyalty major Max Weber messages monitoring Morris Janowitz motivated networks Northcote Parkinson offi official's operating bureaus organization's organizational ossification output performance gap personnel policy space position power setting pressure prestige promotion rational recruitment reduce relationships relatively response result role search agency self-interest shift shrinking violet significant social agents social functions society specific staff subformal subordinates sunk costs superiors superman tend theory tion top-level officials types of officials uncertainty usually utility income zealots