Supercomputers and their use
Supercomputers are in the forefront of computer technology and are of immense practical importance in scientific research due to the speed with which they handle data. This book describes supercomputers--how they are built, what the differences between them are, how they work, and how they could be improved. The author discusses their present applications as well as their future possibilities, keeping technical details to a minimum and carefully explaining necessary terminology. Written in an informal style, the book is accessible to the general, computer literate audience as well as to computer professionals and scientists using large-scale computation.
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Organization of building blocks
Supercomputer architecture in the 1970s
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32 bits 64 bits achieved Add/subtract algorithms applications arithmetic array processor bandwidth calculations central memory channel chips circuits clock period complex Cray Research Cray X-MP Cyber decimal delivered devices discs double precision equations example execution exponent FACOM fast faster floating point floating-point floating-point numbers FORTRAN compiler Fujitsu functional units GFLOPS grid hardware Hitachi ILLIAC IV input/output instruction buffer instruction stack integer language logic loop MASK Mbyte MFLOPS million 64-bit words million words module multiple Mwords NEC SX-2 ns clock operands optimization package parallel peak performance problem processing queue register file scalar processor sequential silicon simulation solve speed speedup statement storage stored subroutine subscript subsystem supercomputers switching synchronous tion transfer rate variables vector instruction vector length vector operations vector pipes vector processor vector registers vectorizable