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From Beyond Siberia
Survival and the Herd
4 other sections not shown
adapted advertisement Alberta animals antler growth antlers Banff National Park behavior Beringia big bulls birth bison body bone bugle bull elk Calf elk California elk caribou Cervus elaphus Consequently conservation cow elk digest diseases ecological elk calves elkís energy European red deer fighting ﬁghts forage forests game ranching Geist grow habitat harem herd bull hide horn HUNTERíS BOND hunters hunting Ice Age Irish Elk killed large antlers males mammals meat milk mineral licks moose mule deer National Park neck mane North America North American elk numbers nutrients Old World deer populations predators prey protection protein red deer reproduction rich rivals Rocky Mountain elk Roosevelt elk RUTTING ELK rutting season scrapie sheep SIBERIA sika sika deer skulls snow sparring species spike bulls spray urine spring stag subspecies summer SURVIVAL trees tropical Tule ungulates wapiti white-tailed deer wild Wildlife Management winter wounds yearling Yellowstone Yellowstone National Park young bulls