Early Mamluk Diplomacy, 1260-1290: Treaties of Baybars and Qalāwūn with Christian Rulers
Peter Malcolm Holt
BRILL, 1995 - History - 161 pages
"Early Mamluk Diplomacy" is based on treaties between the Mamluk sultans of Egypt, Baybars (1260-77) and Qal?w?n (1279-90), and Christian rulers. The General Introduction describes the Arabic literary sources in which these treaties have been transmitted. Their status under Islamic law is examined, followed by a description of negotiation procedures, and an account of diplomatic relations with the Christian powers. Three treaties are with the military orders, four with Beirut, Tripoli, the Latin kingdom and Tyre, and four others with Lesser Armenia, Aragon, the Byzantine Empire and Genoa. Each section has an introduction giving its historical background. The work offers Islamic historians and European medievalists documentary evidence of a kind rare in pre-modern Middle Eastern history, casting light on commercial and social as well as diplomatic relations.
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The treaty of alZahir Baybars with the Lady Isabel
The treaty of alMansur Qalawun with Bohemond VII
The treaty of alMansur Qalawun with King
The treaty of alMansur Qalawun with the Lady
abrogated al-Dunya wa'l-Din al-Malik al-Ashraf al-Malik al-Salih al-Malik al-Zahir al-Marqab al-Qalqashandi Aleppo ambassadors Amir Antartus Antioch Arqa Athlith Ayyubids Bailli Baybars Baybars's Beirut blessed truce Bohemond VII boundaries brothers Byzantine Cairo castles chancery chattels Christian clause coastlands condominia Crusader cultivable land Damascus dirhams districts embassy Emperor envoy established fortresses Frankish Franks Genoa Genoese Hamah harbours herd-tax Hisn al-Akrad Hospital Hospitallers Ibn Abd al-Zahir Ibn al-Furat Islamic territory King Leon king of Aragon kingdom in Acre knights Lady of Tyre Latakia Latin kingdom Lesser Armenia Likewise lord the Sultan Majesty Majesty's territory Mamluk Mamluk sultanate Master merchants Michael VIII Michael VIII Palaeologus Mongols Muslim negotiations oath Order party peace peasants ports prisoners Provided province Qalawun Rabi Ramadan Rawd realm representatives returned ruler Safad safe and secure Sayf al-Din sent settlement Shayzar soldiery stronghold Subh Sultan al-Malik al-Mansur sworn Syria Tashrif Templars therein thereto treaty Tripoli truce applies turcopole villages