The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics

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Peter J. Katzenstein
Columbia University Press, 1996 - Political Science - 562 pages
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The political transformations of the 1980s and 1990s have dramatically affected models of national and international security. Particularly since the end of the Cold War, scholars have been uncertain about how to interpret the effects of major shifts in the balance of power. Are we living today in a unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar world? Are we moving toward an international order that makes the recurrence of major war in Europe or Asia highly unlikely or virtually inevitable? Is ideological conflict between states diminishing or increasing?
In The Culture of National Security, sixteen leading scholars employ an innovative fusion of sociology and security studies to explore alternatives, to the long-dominant analytical perspectives of neorealism and neoliberalism. Questioning the utility of imagining global security relations simply in terms of the conventional dimensions of power and interest, contributors reflect on whether a more effective model would include analysis of cultural complexes as well.
Spanning two centuries from the Greek war for independence in the 1820s to Israeli Palestinian negotiations today, reflecting on such pressing concerns as nuclear and chemical weapons bans and humanitarian intervention, The Culture of National Security lays the groundwork for new models of national security and global affairs, offering a much needed entry point to understanding a world in transition.
  

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Contents

Introduction Alternative Perspectives on National Security
1
Why Traditional National Security Issues?
7
Existing Analytical Perspectives
11
CulturalInstitutional Context and Political Identity
17
Why Bother?
26
Norms Identity and Culture in National Security
33
Analytical Context
37
Theoretical Perspectives
42
Strategic Preference Rankings
248
Chinese Conflict Behavior
251
Problems of Analysis
256
Identity and National Security
269
Identity Norms and National Security The Soviet Foreign Policy Revolution and the End of the Cold War
271
Realist and Liberal Explanations
276
An Ideas and Identity Framework
283
The Empirical Case
288

Arguments
52
Methodological and Metatheoretic Matters
65
Extension and Conclusion
72
Norms and National Security
77
Status Norms and the Proliferation of Conventional Weapons An Institutional Theory Approach
79
Standard Explanations for the Proliferation of Weaponry
82
Obligatory Action and an Institutional Theory of Weapons Proliferation
86
Hypotheses
98
Research Design Data and Methods of Analysis
100
Results
104
Norms and Deterrence The Nuclear and Chemical Weapons Taboos
114
The Social Construction of Deterrence
116
The Chemical Weapons Taboo
126
The Nonuse of Nuclear Weapons
134
Norms Constructivism and Explanation
143
Constructing Norms of Humanitarian Intervention
153
Using Norms to Understand International Politics
156
Humanitarian Intervention in the Nineteenth Century
161
The Expansion of Humanity and Sovereignty
170
Humanitarian Intervention Since 1945
175
Culture and French Military Doctrine Before World War II
186
Alternative Explanations
188
The Cultural Roots of Doctrinal Decisions
200
The Cultural Roots of French Doctrine
204
Cultural Realism and Strategy in Maoist China
216
Why China?
218
Some Conceptual and Methodological Issues
221
The Maoist Central Paradigm
229
Back to the Future?
311
Norms Identity and National Security in Germany and Japan
317
Deficiencies of Structural Accounts
319
The Concept of PoliticalMilitary Culture
325
The Origins of the New PoliticalMilitary Cultures
329
The Evolution of the Two PoliticalMilitary Cultures
338
The Evolution of German and Japanese Security Policies
345
Collective Identity in a Democratic Community The Case of NATO
357
Theorizing About Alliances
359
A Liberal Interpretation of the Transatlantic Security Community The Origins of NATO
372
How Unique Is NATO?
397
Identity and Alliances in the Middle East
400
Identity and Alliance Formation
403
Identity and Alliances in Arab Politics
413
USIsraeli Relations
432
Implications and Conclusion
449
Norms Identity and Their Limits A Theoretical Reprise
451
How Norms Matter
454
The Sources of Norms
469
Challenges in the Study of Norms
483
Conclusion National Security in a Changing World
498
Realism and Liberalism
500
Summary and Extensions
505
Going Beyond Traditional National Security Studies
523
America in a Changing World
528
Index
539
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About the author (1996)

Peter J. Katzenstein is the Walter S. Carpenter, Jr. Professor of International Studies at Cornell University.

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