Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy (Google eBook)

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Harvard University Press, Jul 1, 2009 - History - 276 pages
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Japan's modern international history began in 1858 with the signing of the "unequal" commercial treaty with the United States. Over the next fifteen years, Japanese diplomacy was reshaped to respond to the Western imperialist challenge. "Negotiating with Imperialism" is the first book to explain the emergence of modern Japan through this early period of treaty relations.

Michael Auslin dispels the myth that the Tokugawa "bakufu" was diplomatically incompetent. Refusing to surrender to the West's power, "bakufu" diplomats employed negotiation as a weapon to defend Japan's interests. Tracing various visions of Japan's international identity, Auslin examines the evolution of the culture of Japanese diplomacy. Further, he demonstrates the limits of nineteenth-century imperialist power by examining the responses of British, French, and American diplomats. After replacing the Tokugawa in 1868, Meiji leaders initially utilized bakufu tactics. However, their 1872 failure to revise the treaties led them to focus on domestic reform as a way of maintaining independence and gaining equality with the West.

In a compelling analysis of the interplay among assassinations, Western bombardment of Japanese cities, fertile cultural exchange, and intellectual discovery, Auslin offers a persuasive reading of the birth of modern Japan and its struggle to determine its future relations with the world.

  

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Contents

The Style and Substance of TreatyMaking
11
Negotiating Space The Meaning of Yokohama
34
Negotiating Time The Postponement Strategy
61
The Limits of Negotiation Expulsion and Gunboats
89
New Horizons Tariffs and Translations
118
Rethinking Negotiation Moving toward Revision
146
Negotiating the Future The Iwakura Mission in America and Britain
176
Conclusion
201
Treaties of Friendship and Commerce Signed by the Tokugawa Bakufu and the Meiji Government
211
Key Japanese and Western Diplomats
212
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan July 29 1858
214
Abbreviations
222
Notes
223
Acknowledgments
249
Index
253
Copyright

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About the author (2009)

Michael R. Auslin is Director of Japan Studies at the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

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