African Americans and Race Relations in San Antonio, Texas, 1867-1937

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Taylor & Francis, 1998 - History - 326 pages
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This is a study of how paternal race relations in San Antonio contributed to the rise of accommodation-minded African American leaders whose successful manipulation of the political and ethnic divisions provided goods, services and sustained voting rights during a period when African Americans throughout the South had lost such privileges. The unique demography of Mexican-, German-, Anglo- and African Americans; a service based economy of hotels, restaurants and saloons; and campaigns by white civic leaders to make San Antonio the premier commercial and vacation center of the Southwest nurtured a political machine that intended "to keep blacks in their place". This resulted in an assortment of Jim Crow laws; restrictive employment opportunities; and segregated schools, parks, and municipal services; albeit without mob lynching and racial violence.This paternal brand of racism resulted in the rise of one of the most powerful black political bosses of his time, Charles Bellinger. Challenges fromconservative white reformers and disgruntled black civil rights advocates failed to dislodge the hold Bellinger's machine had on the black community and the city, until the Great Depression. By examining employment, education, politics, and socio-cultural activities that contributed to the city's unique race relations; the study takes a hard look at whether "separate but equal" ever become a reality in San Antonio.
  

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Contents

Race Relations Before 1867
3
Chapter 2
18
Employment Opportunities
45
Major Occupations among African American
52
Males 1920
57
Occupational Profile of African American Females in Domestic and Personal Services 1920
58
Rank of the Possible SelfEmployed 1920
70
Accommodation Politics
81
Percentage of Mulatto Population of the United States and Leading States in the Southwest
186
The Call for Civil Rights
205
Fractured Paternal Order
235
Comparative Employment Figures of African Americans in Major Texas Cities 1930
236
Major Occupations among African American Males 1930
237
Major NonDomestic and Personal Services Positions Held Among African American Males 1930
238
Rank of the Possible SelfEmployed 1930
239
Political Wards with Major African American Populations 1930
252

Ethnic and Racial Population by Political Wards 1870
89
Ethnic and Racial Population by Political Wards 1890
111
Educational Institutions
127
African American Teaching Staff in San Antonio 18901930
139
Educational Statistics by Race 1890
141
Ethnic and Racial Percentage in San Antonio Public Schools 1924
143
Enrollment Figures for Colored Schools 1924
144
Social Development
165
The Rise and Fall of Charles Bellinger
265
Ethnic and Racial Population by Political Wards 1910
267
Ethnic and Racial Population by Political Wards 1920
268
Ethnic and Racial Population by Political Wards 1930
273
Bibliography
283
Index
315
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