Taxation Without Representation in Contemporary Rural China
Cambridge University Press, Mar 27, 2003 - Business & Economics - 282 pages
The financial burden imposed upon the Chinese farmer by local taxes has become a major source of discontent in the Chinese countryside and a worrisome source of political and social instability for the Chinese government. Bernstein and Lü examine the forms and sources of heavy, informal taxation, and shed light on how peasants defend their interests by adopting strategies of collective resistance (both peaceful and violent). Bernstein and Lü also explain why the central government, while often siding with the peasants, has not been able to solve the burden problem by instituting a sound, reliable financial system in the countryside. While the regime has, to some extent, sought to empower farmers to defend their interests - by informing them about tax rules, expanding the legal system, and instituting village elections, for example, these attempts have not yet generated enough power from 'below' to counter powerful, local official agencies.
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The Central and Local States
Rural Society and Peasant Collective Action
Overview of the Chapters
Peasants and Taxation in Historical Perspective
Rural Taxation in the Late Qing and Republican Periods
Taxes and the Communist Revolution
The Primacy of Grain Procurements
Individual and Collective Protest and Violence
Incipient Social Movements?
Leaders Organization and Coordination
Containing Burdens Change and Persistence
Exhortations Regulations and Campaigns
Letters and Visits and the Role of the Media
Extracting Funds from the Peasants
The TVE Factor
Lack of Accountability and Brutality of Enforcement
Institutional Sources of Informal Tax Burdens
Developmental Pressures and Incentives
Chinas Expanding Bureaucracy
Muddled Finances and the Rural Funding Crisis
Burdens and Resistance Peasant Collective Action
Enabling Villagers to Seek Legal Redress
Toward Effective Institutional Change
Burden Reduction Village Democratization and Farmer National Interest Representation
The Impact of Village Democratization on Burdens
Strengthening Farmer Interest Representation at the Center
A National Farmers Association?
abuses administrative agencies agricultural China agricultural tax Anhui areas authorities Beijing billion yuan burden problem burden reduction bureaucracy capacity capita Center central government Chen China Chinese collective actions collective protests Communist complaints corruption countryside demands democracy democratic deputies economic extraction Falun Gong farmers FBIS finance fiscal funds Gansu grain grievances Guangdong Hebei Henan higher levels households Hubei Hunan Ibid implemented imposed incomes increased industrial interests issue Jiangsu Jiangxi leaders levies Lianjiang Liaoning major Maoist million Ministry Ningxiang NMRB officials organization Party committee Party secretary peasant burdens percent policies political provinces reform period regime regulations Renshou reported reportedly revenue Ribao riots RMRB role rural China sector Shandong Shanxi Sichuan tax burdens tax resistance taxation taxes and fees Tianjian township and village TVEs urban village cadres village committees village elections Wang Xinhua Zhejiang Zhongguo Zhu Rongji